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The Skeletal System

The most important terms and definitions of the skeletal system
a data set by ms_thompson
created April 18, 2017
Skeletal SystemThe framework of the body made up of 206 bones that protect and support the soft tissues; also stores and produces blood in the bone marrow
BoneA piece of hard, calcified white tissue that makes up the skeleton
Spongy boneBone that is made up of lattice work and holds the bone marrow
Compact boneThe dense, hard outside of the bone
Long boneBones that are long and slightly curved for strength and mobility; ex. femur
Flat bonePlate-like, highly protective bone; ex. the skull
Sesamoid boneA bone imbedded within a tendon or muscle; ex. the kneecap
Short boneBones that are as wide as they are long; provide support and stability; ex. tarsals of the foot
Irregular boneA bone that cannot be grouped as long, flat, short or sesamoid; ex. vertebrae
DiaphysisThe shaft of a long bone
EpiphysisThe end part of a long bone
Red bone marrowBone marrow that produces and stores red and white blood cells
Yellow bone marrowBone marrow that is filled mostly with adipose tissue (fat)
Medullary cavityThe innermost part of the bone shaft where bone marrow is stored
Bone marrowA soft fatty substance inside bones where blood cells are produced
JointsWhere two bones meet; allows for the skeleton to be flexible
LigamentsA band of fibrous tissue that connects two bones or holds a joint together
CartilageA flexible, rubbery substance found in the joints and at the end of bones to absorb shock and protect against friction
ThoraxThe bones that form a cage that protect the body's vital organs; ribs, sternum and thoracic vertebrae
Axial skeletonThe central body of the skeleton consisting of the thorax, spine, and skull
Appendicular skeletonBones that support the appendages (arms and legs)
SpineA chain of vertebrae from the skull to the lower of back that provides support for the thorax and abdomen; the backbone
SkullThe framework of bone enclosing the brain and supporting the face
OssificationThe process of bone formation; begins during fetal development and takes about 20 years to complete
Stem cellsA type of cell found in bone marrow that produces the body's red blood cells, platelets, and some white blood cells
OsteoblastsBone cells that make new bones and repair damage
OsteocytesMature bone cells that help form new bone
OsteoclastsBone cells that help sculpt and shape the bone
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