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The Digestive System

Terms and definitions of the Digestive System
a data set by ms_thompson
created March 30, 2017
Head and NeckMouthOral cavity; begins the digestive process of ingestion and digestion
Head and NeckEpiglottisFlap in the back of the oral cavity that, when swallowing, blocks the larynx and allows food to pass to the esophagus
Head and NeckPharynxThe throat; a membrane-lined cavity that connects the nose and mouth to the esophagus; the last place where food and air mix
Head and NeckEsophagusA muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach
Upper GI TrackStomachStores food; secretes enzymes and acid to break down food
Lower GI TrackSmall Intenstine22-foot long tube that breaks down food by mixing it with secretions from the pancreas and liver; consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
Lower GI TrackDuodenumFirst part of the small intestine; receives secretions from the gallbladder and pancreas
Lower GI TrackJejunumSecond part of the small intestine where most chemical digestion is completed
Lower GI TrackIleumLast part of the small intestine where absorption of nutrients occurs; food is mostly liquid at this point
PropulsionMovement of food from one organ to the next
Upper GI TrackPancreasSecretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine; also makes insulin which secretes directly into the bloodstream
Upper GI TrackLiverProcesses nutrients absorbed by the small intestine; produces bile
Lower GI TrackLarge IntestineA 6-foot long tube that connects the small intestine to the rectum and processes waste
Upper GI TrackGallbladderStores and concentrates bile; releases it into the duodenum to help process fats
Lower GI TrackRectum An 8-inch long chamber connecting the large intestine to the anus; acts as a temporary storage site for fecus until the body is ready to eliminate waste
Lower GI TrackAnusMuscular opening at the end of the rectum; where feces pass through during defecation
PeristalsisThe involuntary contraction and relaxation of the muscles; occurs in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines
Head and NeckTongueMuscle that assists with chewing, swallowing, and taste
Head and NeckIngestionThe process of consuming or taking in food
Lower GI TrackDefecationThe discharge of feces from the body
Upper GI TrackBileA fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; helps fat digestion
Head and NeckSalivaLiquid containing mucus, enzymes, and water to help lubricate food for chewing and swallowing
Head and NeckSalivary GlandsFour pairs of glands in the oral cavity that produce saliva
DigestionThe process of breaking down food by mechanical and enzymatic action into substances that can be used by the body.
Digestive SystemThe organs and glands in the body that are responsible for digestion
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