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Social Psychology Experiments

a data set by Ethan
created October 20, 2015
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TitleTime PeriodConducted ByConducted AtSetupResultsPopulation
Marshmallow ExperimentLate 1960sWalter MischelStanford UniversityPlace 1 marshmallow in front of a child. If the child can wait 15 minutes, the child will be rewarded with a second marshmallow. Those who could delay gratification would do significantly better in life (SAT scores, educational attainment, BMI scores, and others)Children 4-6
Milgram Experiment1961Stanley MilgramYale UniversitySubjects are instructed to shock a confederate with increasingly powerful voltages, going from a mild 15 volts up through "XXX"65% of participants will administer the 450-volt final shock; not just Nazis are obedient to authority40 people from the Yale area
Initial Conformity Experiment1951Solomon AschSwarthmore CollegeTwo cards are presented to the subject and a group of confederates. One card has a single line, while the other card has multiple lines of varying lengths, labeled "A", "B", and "C". Participants are asked to determine which of the labeled lines is the same length as the one on the other card. Confedereates would answer aloud unanimously nominate one comparator, sometimes correct, sometimes incorrect. Participant would answer last, and their answer would be recorded for correctness and conformity.With no confederates, error rate was less than 1%. When cofederates all answered incorrectly, 36.8% of participants also answered incorrectly. Only 5% always conformed to confedereates, and 25% never conformed.50 students from Swarthmore
The Bystander Effect1968John Darley and Bibb LatanéColumbia UniversityDuring a fake emergency, participants are timed to see how long it takes for them to react or intervene, if they do at all. Participants can either be alone, or in a group with confederates.70% of people help out when alone, but only 40% decided to help when in a group
Roberts Cave Experiments1954-1958Muzafer Sherif Robbers Cave State ParkParticipants who had no previous contact were divided randomly into two teams, and kept unaware of the other team. After some time, the two groups are brought together to compete for prizes. This created negitive feelings towards the other group. Finally, the two teams attempted to integrate into a single unit, minimizing the negitive feelings developed through competition.Forcing teams to work together to accomplish a single goal that would have been impossible to do as a single group helped more than communication or simple exposure22 11- and 12-year-olds
Leon Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance1957Leon FestingerStanford UniversityParticipants did a boring task. Half were paid $1 to say that they enjoyed the task and another was given $20 to say that they enjoyed the task.Those that were paid $1 reported actually like the task more, since $1 isn't enough of an incentive to lie, participants experienced dissonance. To overcome the dissonance, participants re-evaluated how much they enjoyed the task.
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