Psych 101: The Nervous System

a data set by xnity
created February 25, 2016
Nervous SystemComposed of specialized cells called which extend throughout the body, organizes and coordinates all complex functions of the physical organism; There is a Central Nervous System (CNS) and a Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
NeuronA specialized cell that conducts impulses through the nervous system
DendriteFibers that extend from neurons and carry information from the sense organs or adjacent neurons to the cell body
Soma (Cell body)Houses chromosomes and DNA code
AxonA long nerve fiber that carries impulses to muscles, glands, or another neuron
Afferent NeuronSensory neuron which obtain information from the sense organs and relay it back to the brain
Efferent NeuronMotor Neurons which carry information from the brain to the muscles and glands to initiate action
InterneuronsAssociation neurons connect one neuron to another, aid in reflex activity, and transmit memories or thoughts
Electrochemical Relay SystemA system whereby small electrical charges or impulses relay information
SynapseA fluid filled space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another. When the impulse reaches the end o the axon it signals the release of a chemical (a neurotransmitter) which either excites or inhibits the next neuron
Neurons igniteThis occurs when stimulation reaches a certain intensity in a neuron. The intensity of the stimulation determine the quantity and the frequency at which this action takes place.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)The nerves connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body. It's made up of: The Somatic System, Autonomic System
Somatic Nervous SystemPart of the Peripheral Nervous System; contains nerves that connect the sense receptors, muscles, and body surface to the brain
Autonomic Nervous SystemPart of the Peripheral Nervous System; serves the internal organs and regulating processes of the body; Made up of two parts: The Sympathetic Nervous System and the Parasympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous SystemPart of the Autonomic Nervous System; connects all body organs to either side of the spinal cord; It is responsible for preparing the body to cope with stress
Parasympathetic Nervous SystemConnects with the brain lower portion o the spinal cord. It allows the body to return to normal following a stressful period
Central Nervous System (CNS)Made up of the brain and the spinal cord; the spinal cord links the brain to other parts of the body and controls reflex reactions
BrainOrgan most responsible for man's uniqueness; consists of three parts: The hindbrain, the forebrain, and the midbrain
HindbrainLocated above the spinal cord, composed of the medulla, the pons and the cerebellums
MedullaControls respiration
PonsControls coordination of both sides of the bran
CerebellumsControls body balance and coordination
MidbrainResponsible for relaying message to higher brain centers
Reticular Activating System (RAS)Part of the Midbrain; controls the Reticular activating pulses consciously register at the brain
ForebrainMost highly developed part of the brain; composed of the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the corpus callowum and the cerebrum
ThalamusHas some control over the autonomic nervous system and also serves as a relay station
HypothalamusControls the pituitary gland; important in the regulation of emotionally activity and motivation
CerebrumMade up of two hemispheres; linked together by the corpus callosum; held together by the cerebral cortex
Left HemisphereResponds to and controls the right side of the body
Right HemisphereResponds to and controls the left side of the body
Corpus CallosumLinks two sides of the cerebrum together
CerebrumCovered by a tightly packed group of neurons called the cerebral cortex
Cerebral CortexDivided into four lobes: Occipital, Temporal, Parietal, Frontal
Occipital LobesIn the back of the hemispheres; they contain the visual sensory areas
Temporal LobesLocated at the side of each hemisphere; process both visual and auditory information
Parietal LobesFound high on the side of the brain; concerned with with body senses, body movement, and the ability to orient the body
Frontal LobesLocated at the front of the hemispheres, are mainly comprised of association areas
Central FissureA deep fold which separates the temporal and and parietal lobes.
Limbic SystemReferred to as the "old brain" in that it appears in lower species of animals. It is responsible for instinctual patterns of behavior; made up of the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala
Left HemisphereConsidered dominant in mathematical abilities and logical analysis
Right HemisphereConsidered dominant in nonverbal abilities such as art, music appreciation, and intuition
Corpus CallosumUnder normal conditions, information is transmitted from one hemisphere to the other through this part of the brain, so that the two parts function as one. If it is damaged, transmission is halted and the functioning of the brain is impaired