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Psych 101: Consciousness & Dreaming

Terms and definitions about consciousness and dreaming
a data set by xnity
created February 24, 2016
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ConsciousnessAwareness of mental processes (making decisions, remembering, planning); includes self-awareness (aware we exist)
William JamesThought of the idea "Stream of consciousness" - a constant flow of thoughts which consisted of external or internal information
James Watson & B.F. SkinnerLoss of consciousness; early 20th century; only observable and verifiable behavior is important
EEG, PET, CAT, MEGThese technological advancements allowed consciousness to be better understood in addition to subjective reports
Waking and Altered States of consciousnessTwo divisions in the study of consciousness
Nonconscious processesTerm used to describe: bodily processes which we are unaware of, such as blood pressure; certain things done without "conscious awareness" such as signing your name
FreudA concept by this person which says that the unconscious controls behavior and feelings; that the unconscious is hidden; and that the unconscious can be revealed in dreams or slips of the tongue or hypnosis
DaydreamAn event which occurs without effort and develops with different patterns according to personality
High AnxietyDaydreamers with this personalty trait tend to have fleeting, loosely connected daydreams
Strong achievement orientationDaydreamers with this personalty trait tend to have guilt, fear of failure and hostility in their daydreams
HappyDaydreamers with this personalty trait tend to have pleasant fantasies, solve problems and think ahead
CuriousDaydreamers with this personalty trait tend to have daydreams related to the objective world
Fantasy PronePeople are considered to be this if they daydream more than half of the time; 4% of the population makes up this type of people; they tend to be highly creative and use fantasy as a means of escapism from harsh circumstances
IntelligencePeople with this quality feel less guilt and less fear of failure when daydreaming
FreudThis person's theory of daydreams stated that it was a means of expressing forbidden desires - sexual or hostile
PulaskiThis person thought that daydreams built cognitive and creative skills and allowed people to survive difficult circumstances
SingerThis person thought that daydreams were a way of processing cognitive information and a means of dealing with "unfinished business"
SleepA necessary part of life although we do not know why. One theory suggests that, as protein synthesis speeds up during this time, it may be required as protein depletes throughout the day
Going to sleepA time where consciousness is slowly lost and an organism fails to respond to stimuli
Twilight stateDuring this time low voltage Alpha waves are released; this state is similar to relaxed wakefulness
Stage 1A stage of sleep where low amplitude waves are emitted; eyes begin rolling; lasts only a few moments
Stage 2A stage of sleep that is deeper and has slower brain waves
Stage 3A stage of sleep that is deeper; heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature drop
Stage 4A stage of sleep with very slow Delta waves; deepest level of sleep; lessens with age; first sleep made up
Sleep CycleGoes through 4 stages then goes backwards to stage 2 and 3, then enters Stage 1-REM. Cycle lasts 90 minutes
Stage 1-REMStage of sleep consisting of Rapid Eye Movement; Called paradoxical (Brain activity, heart rate, blood pressure all resemble waking consciousness), voluntary muscles are paralyzed and it's a very deep sleep
FreudHis theory of dreaming stated that unconscious wishes translated into dreams; "Dreams are the royal road to the unconscious"
Hobson and McCarleyThis duo thought that dreams were random outbursts of nerve cell activity; the brain translates it into a story
Crick And MitchisonThis duo suggested that the brain was freeing itself from repetitions of thought - that it was the brain's way of "housekeeping"; this would allow the person to be open to new information
MaleThis type of person tends to dream of aggressive or achievement subjects
FemaleThis type of person remembers more dreams; dreams of characters, emotions, friendly interactions and the indoors
Young ChildrenThis type of person has brief dreams consisting of animals; no story
Lower-Middle ClassThis economic class of people dream of people and misfortune
Insomnia35 million people in the US suffer from this condition; 6% male and 14% female; it's caused by stress, depression, biological disposition to be "over-aroused", or through bad sleep habits. Some cures involve changing routine, maintain regular hours, do not fight the condition, try not to worry at night, tryptophan
ApneaAffects 2-4% of the population, breathing stops at night; carbon dioxide spikes which causes waking; prevalent among elderly
NarcolepsyHereditary; attacks of REM sleep; loss of muscle tone when expressing emotion; caused by a defect in CNS
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