Psych 101: Chapter 2 - Endocrine System

Terms and definitions of Biological Psychology
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created February 24, 2016
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Endocrine SystemA system of ductless glands in various parts of the body that manufacture hormones and secrete them into the bloodstream, thus affecting cells in other parts of the body
HormoneA chemical substance that is manufactured and released in one part of the body and affects other parts of the body
Pituitary GlandThe endocrine gland located in the brain that releases hormones that activate other endocrine glands as well as growth hormone, often called the "master gland"; there is an anterior _____ gland and a posterior _____ gland
Posterior Pituitary GlandAlso known as the neurohyophysis, the _____ _____ is made of nervous tissue and stores and secretes two hormones made by the hypothalamus; oxtytocin and ADH. The _____ _____ is controlled by action potentials from the hypothalamus; Plays a role in women during childbirth - releases Oxytocin which puts women into labor - directs contractions in the uterus. After childbirth, it stimulates the production of milk. Produces vasopressin in men and women which regulates blood pressure and fluid in body cells
Thyroid GlandThe endocrine gland that produces thyroxine and regulate the metabolism
Hyperthyroidisma disorder caused by a thyroid gland that is faster than normal and overly productive; results in a rapid pulse, nervousness, and loss of weight
HypothyroidismUnderproduction of thyroxine - slow metabolism, sufferer's lack energy, tend to be heavy, lethargic, correlated to depression -- thought to be genetic
PancreasProduces two counteracting hormones which regulate blood-sugar: insulin and glucagon
Adrenal GlandsThere are two; allows people to deal with stress by producing epinephrine and nor epinephrine
Adrenal MedullaThe inner part of the Adrenal Glands
Adrenal CortexThe outer coating of the Adrenal Glands
EpinephrineWhen a person encounters stress, this hormone is produced from the adrenal medulla which speeds up heart rate
Nor epinephrineRaises blood pressure when individuals encounter stress
Adrenal GlandsAppear to produce hormones which produce secondary sex hormones
GonadsSex glands which interact with adrenal glands to control sexual development; in men they are testes (produce testosterone), in females they are the ovaries (produce estrogen)
Pineal GlandProduces two counteracting hormones; Serotonin and Melanin. Regulates the sleep and wakefulness cycles
ThymusProtects the body from disease; immune system
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