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Psych 101: Chapter 1 - Concepts and terms

Uses Mastering the World of Psychology, Fifth Edition by Samuel E Wood, Ellen Green Wood, and Denise Boyd
a data set by xnity
created February 24, 2016
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FAMILY TREE
TermDefinition
PsychologyScientific study of behavior and mental processes
Scientific MethodA process with five steps: 1. Observe and theorize, 2. Formulate a hypothesis, 3. Design a study, 4. Collect Data, 5. Apply the results to the hypothesis
Observe and theorizeStep one in the Scientific Method
Formulate a hypothesisStep two in the Scientific Method
Design a studyStep three in the Scientific Method
Collect DataStep four in the Scientific Method
Apply the results to the hypothesisStep five in the Scientific Method
TheoryOne or more general principle(s) proposed to explain how a set of separate facts are related.
HypothesisTestable prediction about the conditions in which a particular behavior or mental process might occur
ReplicationThe repeatability of a test which is used to verify results
Goals of Psychology1. Describe - Identify and classify behaviors and mental processes as accurately as possible, 2. Explain - Provide reasons for why certain behaviors or mental processes might occur, 3. Predict - Give accurate predictions or hypotheses about how certain conditions might lead to particular behaviors or mental processes, 4. Influence - Utilizing information gained through the scientific method to solve practical problems
DescribeGoal 1: Identify and classify behaviors and mental processes as accurately as possible
ExplainGoal 2: Provide reasons for why certain behaviors or mental processes might occur
PredictGoal 3: Give accurate predictions or hypotheses about how certain conditions might lead to particular behaviors or mental processes
InfluenceGoal 4: Utilizing information gained through the scientific method to solve practical problems
Basic ResearchResearch conducted to discover new information related to the field and to broaden the scope of the subject
Applied ResearchResearch directed to solving particular problems and to improve quality of life
StructuralismThe first school of psychology, it focused on studying the structure of conscious mental experience. Utilized Introspection.
FunctionalismAn early school of psychology, it focused on how humans and animals use mental processes to adapt to their environments and acted as a reaction to Structuralism
BehaviourismThe school of psychology which focuses on observable, measurable behavior. Emphasizes the importance of the environment as a determinant of behavior.
PsychoanalysisFounded by Freud, it's based on his case studies of his patients. He used this term for both his treatment and his theory of personality. Focuses on the unconscious desires and anxieties as a determinant in behavior.
HumanismFocuses on the uniqueness of humans and their capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health
Positive PsychologyScientific study of psychological characteristics which enable individuals and communities to thrive under conditions which induce stress. The foundation of this psychological school was provided by Humanistic Psychology
Cognitive PsychologyHumans are seen as active participants in their environments. Studies mental processes such as memory, problem solving, reasoning, decision making, perception, language and other forms of cognition
Gestalt Psychology_____ roughly means "whole" in German. Suggests that in order to understand a thing, you must understand everything about it. Important with regard to perception and sensation. A school in psychology that emphasizes that we perceive wholes that are greater than the sum of their parts.
Information-Processing TheoryUses the computer as a model. States that human mental processes follow a sequential order in a very similar way to how a computer accomplishes tasks. Expanded to include the idea of parallel computing.
Evolutionary PsychologyStudies how human behaviors which are required for survival have been adapted in exposure to environmental pressures over the course of evolution
Biological or Physiological PsychologyFocus on specific psychological and biological components which explain differences between individuals.
Neurosciencean interdisciplinary field which incorporates knowledge from psychology, biology, biochemists, medical researches, and others in the study of the function and the structure of the nervous system
Sociocultural ApproachSocial and cultural factors may be just as influential as evolutionary and physiological factors as determinants of behavior. These factors should be understood along with the other approaches when assessing behavior.
Psychological PerspectivesGeneral points of view used for explaining behavior and thinking - abnormal or normal
Behavioural PerspectiveFocus on environmental factors
Psychoanalytic PerspectiveFocus on early childhood experience, unconscious, emotions
Humanistic PerspectiveFocus on subjective experience, intrinsic motivation to achieve self actualization
Cognitive PerspectiveFocus on mental processes
Evolutionary PerspectiveFocus on inherited traits which enhance adaptability
Biological PerspectiveFocus on biological structures, processes and heredity
Sociocultural PerspectiveFocuses on social and cultural variables
Critical Thinkingthe process of evaluating if proposed conclusions or theories logically follow from the evidence provided; has three parts
Independent thinkingNot accepting information presented; part 1 in Critical Thinking
Suspension of JudgementAcquiring relevant facts from all opposing sides of an issue; part 2 of Critical Thinking
Willingness to Modify or Abandon Prior JudgementsEvaluate new evidence and modify or abandon previous assumptions as required; part 3 of Critical Thinking
Descriptive Research MethodsResearch methods that yield descriptions of behaviors
Naturalistic ObservationResearching elements in their natural environment, devoid of any machinations or manipulations by the observer
Laboratory ObservationBehavior is studied in a laboratory setting
Case StudyA thorough, in depth study of one or a couple of people
SurveyA descriptive research method in which interviews or questionnaires are use in gathering information pertaining to attitudes, beliefs, and experiences about a large group of people
Populationthe entire group which results of surveys are applied to
SampleA part of the population that is studied and the results of which will be applied to the population
Representative SampleA sample that proportionality reflects the population from which conclusions of the study will be applied to
Correlational MethodResearch method which determines the degree of relationship between two characteristics, events or behaviors
Correlational CoefficientA numeric value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables; range[+1.00, -1.00]
Experimental MethodThis is the only research method that can be used to establish a cause-effect relationship between two or more conditions or variables
Causal HypothesisA prediction about a cause-effect relationship between two ore more variables or conditions
VariableAny condition or factor that can be changed or manipulated
Independent VariableA variable that is intentionally altered to determine any changes in behaviors or conditions
Dependent VariableThe measured variable which depends on the Independent Variable
Experimental GroupIn an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Control GroupIn an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Confounding VariablesAny difference between the experimental and control conditions, except for the independent variable, that might affect the dependent variable.
Selection BiasAssigning participants to experimental or control groups in such a way that systematic differences are present at the beginning of the experiment
Random AssignmentProcess of selecting participants for the experimental and control groups by using chance as the determining factor. Allows each participant to have an equal chance of being in either group and acts as a control for Selection Bias.
Participant Biasa tendency for research participants to respond in a certain way because they know they are being observed, or they believe they know what the researcher wants
Placeboa inert substance, often presented as a medicine, that has an effect because of a patient's expectations rather than because of an active ingredient
Placebo EffectA phenomenon which occurs in an experiment when the participants response to a treatment is due to hir expectations about the treatment rather than to the treatment itself
Experimenter Biasa phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
Double-blind TechniqueAn experimental control in which neither the participants nor the researchers interacting with the participants are aware of the group or condition to which the participants have been assigned.
Quasi-ExperimentsComparisons of groups that differ in exposure to a variable of interest which cannot be altered or manipulated in any way because of ethical or practical reasons
Cross-Cultural ResearchResearch designed to compare and contrast people of different cultures
1800'sPsychology became a scientific discipline
IntrospectionA method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings
Edward TitchnerHe introduced structuralism to the United States, and was a student of Wilhelm Wudnt; He also encouraged introspection. Broke consciousness down into three elements: physical sensations, feeling, and images
William James1842-1910; Field: functionalism; Contributions: studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studies: Pragmatism, The Meaning of Truth; Published "The Principles of Psychology", the science's first textbook. Established the Theory of Functionalism: How mental processes function in our lives.; Focused on how humans and animals use mental processes for adaptation; focuses on the environment
John B Watsonbehaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
SR AssociationIdea that a stimulus automatically triggers a response for a "stimulus-response"
Sigmund Freud1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms (expanded by Anna Freud), psychoanalysis, transference; Focus on early childhood experiences, unconscious mind, and human sexuality; His Psychoanalytic theory is highly controversial
Abraham Maslowhumanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization, transcendence
Carl Rogers1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
Observer Biassystematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer's expectations
APA Code of EthicsAnimal abuse is no longer tolerated; People may leave experiments when they choose; The law cannot be broken for sake of an experiment (special permission must be given for any transgressions of the law); Participants must be informed of the purpose & potential harm of experiments they are involved in; Deception can only be used if it is absolutely necessary
Clinical Psychologistpsychologist who treats people serious psychological problems or conducts research into the causes of behavior
School Psychologistidentify and help students who have problems that interfere with learning
Forensic Psychologistapplies psychological concepts to legal issues
Counselling Psychologistassists people of all ages to deal effectively with all kinds of personal and relationship issues that impact on their mental health and wellbeing. Eg: marriage counseling, stress management, anxiety and phobias
Physiological Psychologistinvestigate the biological basis of human behavior; link between brain functioning and overall behavior
Experimental Psychologist_____ Psychologists focus on using experimental and empirical methods to research behaviors and the minds of humans and animals. Components of _____ psychology are used in most fields of psychology through research but _____ psychologists are solely focused on research designs and methodologies. The scientific method is a main tenet and are used as guidelines for _____ psychologists to design their research studies. Using previous research as a framework for future research is an integral part of building knowledge in any field and is important for the emergence of new theories
Developmental PsychologistThe study of the lifelong, often age-related, processes of change in the physical, cognitive, moral, emotional, and social domains of functioning; such changes are rooted in biological mechanisms that are genetically controlled, as well as in social interactions
Educational PsychologistStudies theoretical issues related to how people learn and develop effective teaching practices.
Social Psychologistfocus on how a person's mental life and behavior are shaped by interactions with other people.
Industrial/Organizational (I/O) PsychologistStudy the relationships between people and their work environments
Naturalistic ObservationPros: Gives inspiration for new avenues of research; Cons: Observer Bias
Observer BiasA method for overcoming this bias is to have many observers.
Case StudyPros: Rare psychological disorders can be examined in depth; Cons: Cannot generalize findings
SurveyPros: Many people can be reached; inexpensive; Cons: People may be dishonest; questions may not be understood
Correlational MethodPros: If the relationship is well known, predictions can be made; Cons: Cannot conclude causation
Experimental ResearchPros: Only method by which a cause and effect relationship can be concluded; Cons: Findings in a laboratory may not translate as well in real life situations
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