Learn about facts regarding some of the most popular gemstones around the world.
a data set by WorldExplorer
created April 22, 2017
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Spell the Gemstones' Names
Can you spell these gemstones' names accurately based on the names' origin and meaning?
Learn Different Gemstones
This flashcard game can help you familiarize yourself with each gemstone's rough and polished images. Are you ready to learn them all?
Birthstones Matching Game
Do you know that a number of gemstones were selected as birthstones associated with the twelve months of the year and the current list dates back to 1912? In this game, please decide whether each gemstone matches the birthstone description.
Connect Gemstones' Basic Facts
In this game, please select all that applies to each displayed gemstone, including its mineral group, color, and hardness.
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|Name||Picture (Rough)||Picture (Polished)||Etymology||Time of Discovery||Location of Discovery||Current Source||Mineral Class||Color||Mohs Scale Hardness||Luster||Diaphaneity||Birthstone|
|Agate||From the Ancient Greek "Achates", the name of a river in southwestern Sicily where the material was found.||Between 400 BC and 300 BC||Shore line of the river Achates in present-day Sicily||United States, Mexico, Germany, Italy, Brazil, China, India, and Africa||Chalcedony||White to grey, light blue, orange to red, black, banded||6.5 to 7.0||Waxy||Translucent|
|Alexandrite||Named after Czar Alexander II of Russia.||1830 AD||Ural mountains in Russia||Russia, Brazil, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, India, and Madagascar||Chrysoberyl||Bluish green in daylight, purplish red in incandescent light||8.5||Vitreous||Transparent to opaque||One of the three June birthstones in the United States|
|Amber||From the Arabic "anbar".||The Baltic Sea Region, Sicily, United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark, Romania, Myanmar, Lebanon, Dominican Republic, Southern Mexico, Canada, and Alaska||Mineraloid||Yellow, brown, whitish yellow, reddish, cream color, orange shades. Rarely blue, greenish, violetish||2.0 to 2.5||Greasy||Transparent to nearly opaque|
|Amethyst||From the Ancient Greek "amethystos", meaning “not drunk.” It was believed you could drink all night and remain sober if you had this gemstone in your mouth.||3000 BC||Europe||Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia, Tanzania, Zambia, Namibia, and United States||Quartz||Purple, violet||7.0||Vitreous to glossy||Transparent to translucent||February birthstone in the United States|
|Ametrine||A combination of the names amethyst and citrine.||17th Century AD||Brazil||Bolivia (only commercial source)||Quartz||Bicolor orange/yellow and purple||7.0||Vitreous||Transparent to translucent|
|Aquamarine||From the Latin "aqua marina" for "sea water," in allusion to the color.||1723 AD||Adun-Chalon mountains in Siberia||Brazil, Zambia, Mozambique, Angola, Nigeria, and Madagascar||Beryl||Greenish blue, light in tone||7.5 to 8.0||Vitreous||Transparent to translucent||March birthstone in the United States|
|Citrine||From the old French "citrin", meaning yellow.||Brazil and Bolivia||Quartz||Yellow, yellow-brown, orange, dark orange-brown, reddish-brown||7.0||Vitreous||Transparent to translucent||One of the two November birthstones in the United States|
|Coral||From the Greek "korallion".||Red Sea, the Midway Islands, the Canary Islands,Taiwan, Malaysia, Australia, Sicily, Sardinia, and Hawaii||Mineraloid||White, red, orange, pink, gray, black||3.0 to 4.0||Vitreous to waxy||Translucent to opaque|
|Cordierite (Iolite）||Named after the French geologist Louis Cordier who first studied its crystals.||1813 AD||Madagascar, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, India, and Brazil||Cordierite||Blue, purple, gray||7.0 to 7.5||Vitreous||Transparent to translucent|
|Danburite||Named after the type locality, Danbury, Connecticut.||1839 AD||Connecticut, United States||Mexico, Russia, Japan, Myanmar, Madagascar, and Bolivia||Danburite||Colorless, white, gray, brownish white, straw yellow||7.0 to 7.5||Vitreous to greasy||Transparent to translucent|
|Diamond||From the Greek word "adamas", meaning the hardest steel, and hence the hardest gemstone.||800 BC - 1000 BC||Guntur and Krishna district of the Krishna River delta, Southern India||Central and Southern Africa, Canada, India, Russia, Brazil, and Australia||Diamond||Typically yellow, brown, or gray to colorless. Less often blue, green, black, translucent white, pink, violet, orange, purple, and red||10.0||Adamantine||Transparent to subtransparent to translucent||April birthstone in the United States|
|Emerald||From the Greek "smaragados" for "green", through the Latin "smaragdus" to the Middle English "esmeralde".||1500 BC||Egypt||Columbia, Brazil, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Afghanistan, and Madagascar||Beryl||Green shades to colorless||7.5 to 8.0||Vitreous||Transparent to opaque||May birthstone in the United States|
|Garnet||From the Latin "granatus" for “grain”.||East Africa, Russia, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, South Africa, and United States||Garnet||Virtually all colors, but blue is very rare||6.5 to 7.5||Vitreous to resinous||Transparent to translucent||January birthstone in the United States|
|Jade||From the Spanish "piedras de ijada", meaning “stone of the loins”.||Since the Stone Age||China||Jadeite: Mynamar, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Guatemala, and United States (California); Nephrite: China, Russia, Brazil, and United States (Wyoming, Alaska, and California)||Jadeite and Nephrite||Green, white, orange, yellow, lavender, black||6.5 to 7.0 (Jadeite) and 6.0 to 6.5 (Nephrite)||Vitreous to sugary (Jadeite); Vitreous to silky, waxy (Nephrite)||Translucent to opaque|
|Jasper||From Old French "jaspre", meaning "spotted or speckled stone".||At least between 4000 BC and 5000 BC||Pakistan||India, Russia, Kazakhstan, Indonesia, Egypt, Madagascar, Australia, Brazil, Venezuela, Uruguay, and United States (Oregon, Idaho, Washington, California, Arizona, Utah, Arkansas, and Texas)||Quartz and/or Chalcedony||White, blue, red, green, yellow, orange, brown, gray, black, banded, multicolored||6.5 to 7.0||Vitreous||Opaque|
|Lapis Lazuli||From the Persian lazhward for blue stone.||7000 BC||Kokcha River valley of Badakhshan province in northeastern Afghanistan||Afghanistan, Pakistan, Russia, Chile, Italy, Mongolia, United States, and Canada||Metamorphic rock||Greenish blue to violetish blue||5.0 to 5.5||Dull||Semi-translucent to opaque|
|Moonstone||Named after the lustrous “moonlight” sheen of the adularescent effect found in these stones.||Sri Lanka, India, Myanmar, Mexico, and Madagascar||Feldspar||Can be numerous colors, including blue, grey, white, pink, peach, green and brown||6.0||Vitreous||Transparent to opaque||One of the three June birthstones in the United States|
|Morganite||Named after J. P. Morgan, American investment banker and financier.||1910 AD||An island on the coast of Madagascar||Brazil, Madagascar, Afghanistan, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Pakistan, and United States (California, Maine, and Utah)||Beryl||Pink to orange-pink||7.5 to 8.0||Vitreous||Translucent to transparent|
|Onyx||From the Latin word (of the same spelling), and from the Greek ὄνυξ, meaning "claw" or "fingernail".||Yemen, Uruguay, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Germany, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Madagascar, United Kingdom, and United States||Chalcedony||Various from white to almost every color (save some shades, such as purple or blue)||6.5 to 7.0||Vitreous to silky||Translucent|
|Opal||From the Latin name "opalus", possibly derived from the Ancient Greek "opallios" for "color changing".||4000 BC||Possibly Ethiopia||Australia, Mexico, and United States||Mineraloid||Colorless, white, yellow, orange, and red (various shades), yellowish brown, greenish, blue, gray, black, violet||5.5 to 6.5||Vitreous to waxy, pearly||Transparent to translucent to opaque||One of the two October birthstones in the United States|
|Pearl||From the Old French "perle", Medieval Latin "perla", and Classical Latin "pernula" or "perna" for pearl.||Japan, China, and the South Pacific||Mineraloid||White, black, gray, yellow, orange, pink, lavender, green, blue||2.5 to 4.5||Pearly to dull||Translucent to opaque||One of the three June birthstones in the United States|
|Peridot||Possibly from an alteration of Anglo–Norman pedoretés (classical Latin pæderot-), a kind of opal.||1500 BC||Topazo Island in the Egyptian Red Sea||United States (Arizona), China, Myanmar, and Pakistan||Olivine||Yellow, yellow-green, olive-green, brownish, lime-green, emerald-ish hue||6.5 to 7.0||Oily to vitreous||Transparent to translucent||One of the three August birthstones in the United States|
|Rhodochrosite||From the Greek word for rose-colored, in allusion to the color.||1813 AD||Romania||United States (Colorado and Montana), Mexico, South Africa, Argentina, and Peru||Rhodochrosite||Pale pink, rose red, deep pink, orangish red, yellowish, gray, tan, brown||3.5 to 4.0||Vitreous to pearly||Transparent to translucent|
|Ruby||From the Latin "ruber" for red.||Thailand, Myanmar, Madagasca, Sri Lanka, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Tanzania, Mozambique, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikstan, Australia, and United States||Corundum||All varieties of red, from pinkish, purplish, orangey, brownish, to dark red||9.0||Vitreous to adamantine||Transparent to opaque||July birthstone in the United States|
|Sapphire||From the Latin "sapphirus" for blue.||Sri Lanka, Kenya, Myanmar, Tanzania, Kashmir, Madagascar, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Australia, and United States||Corundum||Colorless, white, gray, blue, blue-green, green, violet, purple, orange, yellow, yellow-green, brown, golden amber, peachy pink, pink, black||9.0||Vitreous to adamantine||Transparent to opaque||September birthstone in the United States|
|Scapolite||From the Greek “scapos” or "rod", and refers to the short rod-like crystal habit.||1913 AD||Northern Myanmar||Tanzania, Madagascar, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, India, China, Myanmar, Brazil, and Canada||Scapolite||White, colorless, yellow, orange, brown, pink, purple||5.0 to 6.0||Vitreous||Transparent to opaque|
|Sodalite||Named in allusion to the sodium content.||1811 AD||Greenland||Afghanistan, Australia, Brazil, and Canada (Ontario and British Columbia)||Sodalite||Colorless; white, yellowish, greenish, reddish; usually light to dark blue.||5.5 to 6.0||Dull vitreous to greasy||Transparent to translucent|
|Spinel||Possibly from the Latin "spina" for “thorn,” alluding to spine-shaped crystals.||Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Madagascar||Spinel||Red, pink, blue, lavender/violet, dark green, brown, black, colorless||7.5 to 8.0||Vitreous||Transparent to opaque||One of the three August birthstones in the United States|
|Spodumene||From the Greek word "spodumenos" which means burnt to ashes, referring to its most common color.||1800 AD||Utö, Södermanland, Sweden||Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique, and United States (California and Maine)||Spodumene||White, colorless, gray, pink, lilac, violet, yellow and green, may be bicolored||6.5 to 7.0||Vitreous, pearly on cleavage||Transparent to opaque|
|Sunstone||Named after the “sun-like” golden red schiller effect found in some of these stones.||India, Norway, Russia, Madagascar, and United States (Oregon)||Feldspar||Colorless, yellow, red, green, blue, and copper shiller||6.0 to 6.5||Vitreous||Transparent to translucent|
|Tanzanite||Named after Tanzania, the country in which it was discovered.||1967 AD||Mererani Hills of Manyara Region in Northern Tanzania||Tanzania||Zoisite||Blue and violet||6.5||Vitreous, pearly on cleavage||Transparent to translucent||One of the three December birthstones in the United States|
|Topaz||From the Sanskrit "tapas" for fire, alluding to the orange color, or from Topazos, an ancient Greek name for St. John's Island in the Red Sea where the gem was said to be mined.||Brazil, Pakistan, Russia, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, China, Myanmar, Japan, Ukraine, Australia, Madagascar, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Mexico, and United States (California, Utah, and New Hampshire)||Topaz||Colorless, blue, brown, orange, gray, yellow, green, pink, and reddish pink||8.0||Vitreous||Transparent to opaque||One of the two November birthstones in the United States|
|Tourmaline||From the Tamil and Sinhalese word "Turmali" or "Thoramalli", which applied to different gemstones found in Sri Lanka.||Brazil, Tanzania, Nigeria, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Malawi||Tourmaline||Most commonly black, but can range from colorless, brown, violet, yellow, orange, blue, red, green, pink, or bi-colored, or even tri-colored||7.0 to 7.5||Vitreous, sometimes resinous||Transparent to opaque||One of the two October birthstones in the United States|
|Turquoise||From the French turquois for “Turkish”. The stone was brought to Europe from Persia through Turkey.||Over 7500 years ago||Iran, Afghanistan, China, Australia, Chile, Mexico, and United States (Arizona and Nevada)||Turquoise||Blue, green, multicolored||5.0 to 6.0||Waxy to subvitreous||Opaque||One of the three December birthstones in the United States|
|Zircon||From the Persian "zargun" meaning gold-hued.||Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Australia, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan||Zircon||Reddish brown, yellow, green, blue, gray, colorless||6.0 to 7.5||Vitreous to adamantine; sometimes greasy||Transparent to opaque||One of the three December birthstones in the United States|