Use this dataset to learn about common types of logical fallacies.
a data set by WorldExplorer
created June 8, 2017
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|Ad Hominem||Personal Attack||Attacks the arguer instead of the argument||A: Global warming is real. B: That's not true because you're delusional.|
|Bandwagon||Argumentum ad populum||The argument is declared to be true because many people believe that it is||1. Many people think that the Earth is flat. Therefore: 2. The Earth must be flat.|
|Argument from Fallacy||Argumentum ad logicam Fallacist's Fallacy||Rejects an idea as false because the argument that presented the idea is fallacious||A: Water is made of H2O. You are stupid. B: 1. Your argument used a personal attack Therefore: 2. Water is not made of H2O|
|Fallacy of Composition||Assumes that what is true about part of the whole is true about the whole||1. The car's tires are made of rubber. Therefore: 2. The car is made of rubber.|
|Fallacy of Divison||Assumes that what is true about the whole must be true about every part of the whole||1. High school students use social media a lot. 2. Jennifer is a high school student. Therefore: 3. Jennifer uses social media a lot.|
|Straw Man||Misrepresents an argument to make it appeal weaker than it actually is||A: We should relax the laws on marijuana. B: No, societies with access to drugs lose their work ethic and are obsessed with immediate gratification.|
|Gambler's Fallacy||Monte Carlo Fallacy Fallacy of the Maturity of Chances||Assumes that if something happens more frequently than normal during a period of time, then it will happen less frequently in the future or vice versa||1. The coin landed head-up nine times in a row. Therefore: 2. The coin will land tails-up on the tenth try.|
|Genetic Fallacy||Fallacy of Origins||Rejects or accepts an idea based on its source, not its merit||1. My dad says that Santa Claus is real Therefore: 2. Santa Claus is real|
|Appeal to Tradition||Argumentum ad antiquitatem||Assumes that a premise is true because people have always believed it or done it||1. Children have started school at 8am for a long time. Therefore: 2. Starting school at 8am is best for children.|
|Appeal to Authority||Argumentum ad verecundiam||Assumes that an idea is true because a person judged to be of authority affirms the idea||1. Rush Limbaugh says that global warming is a myth. Therefore; 2. Global warming is a myth.|
|Appeal to Consequences||Argumentum ad consequentiam||Concludes that an idea is true or false based on whether the idea leads to desirable or undesirable consequences||1. If you don't have children, your life will be meaningless. Therefore: 2. You must have children.|
|Appeal to Force||Argumentum ad baculum||An attempt to persuade using threats||1. If you don't accept that Kim Jong-Un is the rightful leader of North Korea, you will be killed. Therefore: 2. Kim Jong-Un is the rightful leader of North Korea.|
|Appeal to Novelty||Argumentum ad novitatem||Assumes that an idea is true because it is new||1. The iPhone 7 is the newest iPhone. Therefore: 2. The iPhone 7 is the best iPhone.|
|Appeal to Pity||Sob story Galileo arguement Argumentum ad misericordiam||Attempts to persuade using emotion (i.e. sympathy) instead of evidence||"You must have lost my paper. I worked for a very long time on this paper because I need good grades for a scholarship. If I don't get a scholarship I won't be able to afford school!"|
|Appeal to Poverty||Argumentum ad lazarum||Assumes an idea is correct because the speaker is poor, or incorrect because the speaker is wealthy||1. The working class work for 12 hours a day. Therefore: 2. Working for 12 hours a day is virtuous.|
|Appeal to Wealth||Argumentum ad crumenam||Assumes that someone or something is better because they are wealthier or more expensive||1. My car cost more than his. Therefore: 2. My car is better than his.|
|Moralistic Fallacy||Assumes that an aspect of nature that has unpleasant consequences cannot exist||1. War is tragic 2. Human nature is good. Therefore: 3. War is not part of human nature.|
|Naturalistic Fallacy||Infers "ought" from "is"; assumes that because something occurs in nature, that's the way is should be.||1. Men have more muscle mass and women can give birth. Therefore: 2. Men and women cannot have the same roles in society.|
|Red Herring||Attempts to divert the arguer by introducing another, often irrelevent, topic||"You shouldn't ground me for staying out late! My sister has done worse things."|
|Argument from Ignorance||Argumentum ad ignorantiam||Infers that an idea is true because it has not proven to be false||1. No one has been able to prove that aliens exist. Therefore: 2. Aliens don't exist.|
|Affirming the Consequent||Converse error||Follows the following form: 1. If A then B 2. B Therefore: 3. A||1. If I have the flu, I have a sore throat. 2. I have a sore throat. Therefore: 3. I have the flu.|
|Circular Reasoning||Circulus in probando||An argument that uses its conclusion as one of its premises||A: Bees make honey. B: Why? A: Because Bees make honey.|
|Complex Question||Plurium interrogationum||Rests on a questionable assumption to which all answer affirm the truth of that assumption||"Are you going to admit that you're wrong?"|
|Post Hoc Fallacy||Post hoc ergo propter hoc||Assumes that because one thing occured after another, it must have occured as a result of it||1. I prayed for good grades. 2. I got good grades Therefore: 3. Prayer works.|
|Cum Hoc Fallacy||Argues that because two things occured together, they must be causally related||1. Internet use has increased in the past 10 years. 2. Smoking has declined in the past 10 years Therefore: 3. Increased internet use causes smoking rates to decline.|
|False Dilemma||Bifurcation fallacy||Claims that something is an "either/or" situation when in fact there is at least one additional option||"In the War on Terror, you're either with us, or against us." (Neutrality is an option.)|
|Slippery Slope||Camel's nose||Falsely claims that one thing must lead to another||"If we allow people to smoke marijuana, they will then start using cocaine and heroin too."|
|Tu Quoque||Appeal to hypocrisy||Assumes that because someone else has done something, there is nothing wrong with doing it||1. Other companies have raised their prices. Therefore: 2. We can raise our prices.|
|Sweeping Generalization||Applies a general statement too broadly||1. Too many cooks spoil the brew. Therefore: 2. One person should do all the work for this group project.|
|Hasty Generalization||Draws a rule from a single, possibly atypical, case||1. Bill Gates dropped out of school and is now a millionaire. Therefore: 2. People who drop out of school become millionaires.|