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Individuals of the Renaissance through Early Modern Era

a data set by MrPedersenBHS
created November 17, 2016
Bloody MaryCatholic daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Ruled briefly as queen of England. Killed many of her Protestant adversaries.
AkbarLeader of the Mughal Empire in India. Sought to rule a religiously diverse population. Went so far as to marry a Hindu princess.
Amadeus MozartAustrian composer, musician in the late 18th century, who wrote a string of operas, concertos and symphonies.
Cardinal MazarinSuccessor to Cardinal Richelieu, continued French involvement in the Thirty Years War. Served as a regent for Louis XIII
Cardinal RichelieuServed as chief minister for Louis XIII and later as regent for the young Louis XIV. During his time as a political leader, curbed the powers of the Huguenots, strengthened the absolute power of the monarchy, and aided the Protestants in the Thirty Years War.
Catherine IIPrussian, Protestant princess who married Peter III of Russia (grandson of Peter I). Continued Peter's reform policies, while also bringing Enlightenment ideals to Russia
Charles IStuart king of England during the early 17th century. Thought of himself as an absolute monarch, sought to rule England without Parliament. Conflicts with Parliament were major reasons for the English Civil War. Was tried and executed by his subjects.
Charles IISon of Charles I, who was restored to the English throne following Cromwell's Commonwealth. Had strong Catholic ties and attempted to rule like father, as absolute monarch. On his death, brother James II ascended to the throne.
Charles VHapsburg ruler during the Protestant Reformation. Following Peace of Augsburg abdicated throne giving Spain, Netherlands to son and H.R.E, Austria to brother.
Denis DiderotFrench philosopher, best known for creating the first encyclopedia.
Desiderius ErasmusDutch Renaissance writer and humanist. Author of "In Praise of Folly" where he satirizes and criticizes the practices of the Church.
Edward JennerEnglish physician who developed the first vaccine; specifically for smallpox.
El GrecoArtist from the island of Crete, Greece, who lived in Spain in the 16th century. Was best known for his paintings reflecting his Catholic beliefs.
Elizabeth ITudor queen of England after Mary. Brought back the Anglican Church and set out to reform the Anglican rites, making it more Protestant. Died in 1603 without an heir.
Francis BaconEnglish philosopher during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. Created a system based on empirical evidence and inductive thinking, separating science from philosophy
Frederick IIHohenzollern ruler of Prussia during the 18th century.. In 1740, invaded Silesia and began the War of Austrian Succession. Also became involved in the Seven Years War.
Galileo GalileiItalian astronomer, who made observations of the skies to confirm Copernicus' heliocentric model. Ideas were considered heretical and lived under house arrest.
Henry VIIITudor king of England during the 16th century. Sough an annulment of marriage to Catherine of Aragon, but was refused to named the head of the Church of England.
Isaac NewtonEnglish physicist and mathematician who formulated a theory of gravity. Was created with the co-creation of calculus.
Ivan the TerribleGrandson of Ivan III, who had removed the Mongols from Russia. Killed his son, ending the dynasty of his family.
Jan HusBohemian theologian, who shared many of the same believes as Wyclif. in 1414 at the Council of Constance, was tried and branded heretic. Was burned at the stake; death caused major revolt in his homeland.
Jean-Jacques RousseauSwiss Enlightenment thinker who wrote "The Social Contract" where he argues that human beings create a contract between themselves and themselves.
Johann Sebastian BachGerman composer, musician of the Baroque period (18th century).
Johannes KeplerGerman astronomer who proved that the orbit of planets in the solar system were elliptical rather than circular.
John CalvinFrench reformer, who created a theocracy in Geneva. His writings emphasized predestination and obedience to God. Ideas spread to England, Scotland, Netherlands and France.
John KnoxScottish Calvinist, who was instrumental in the creation of the Presbyterian faith.
John LockeEnglish philosopher who write "Two Treaties of Government," where he argued that all human beings are essential good and have certain basic freedom (life, liberty and property).
John WyclifEnglish theologian, who as critical of the practices of the Catholic Church. Translated the Bible into English. Was eventually branded heretic, writings destroyed, and body exhumed to be burned.
Leonardo da VinciItalian scientist, artist and inventor. Considered the quintessential "Renaissance Man." Known for his paintings "The Last Supper" and "Mona Lisa."
Louis XIVFrench absolutist ruler during the 17th century, sometimes nicknamed "The Sun King." Sought to exert power of neighbors, fighting in a series of wars.
Louis XVIBourbon king of France, great-grandson of the Sun King. Poor ruler of France, whose reign ended with the French Revolution. Was guillotined in January 1793.
Maria TheresaHapsburg ruler in Austria during the 18th century. Her father fought to ensure she would inherit her throne. Became embroiled in various conflicts with neighbors. Was the mother of Maria Antoinette.
Martin LutherGerman monk, whose 95 Thesis began the Protestant Reformation. Believed in salvation by faith alone; stressed the importance of the Bible and the priesthood of all believers. Lutheranism remained a Germanic, Scandinavian tradition.
Mary WollstonecraftEnglish Enlightenment writer and philosopher who was a strong advocate of education for women.
Maximilien de RobespierreFrench leader during the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution. Dominated the Committee of Public Safety until he was overthrown and guillotined.
Miguel de CervantesSpanish author of the first modern novel "Don Quixote."
MontisqueFrench philosopher who wrote "On the Spirit of Laws" where he argued that the powers of the government need to have certain checks and balances.
Napoleon BonaparteFrench military commander, and later emperor of France. Rose to power following the French Revolution, successfully waged war across Europe until his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.
Niccolo MachiavelliItalian Renaissance author of "The Prince," where he developed a political theory on how rulers could rule. Famous for "ends justify the means."
Nicolaus CopernicusRenaissance Era astronomer who developed a heliocentric model of solar system. His ideas build on earlier works of astronomers. Died after work was published.
Oliver CromwellPuritan member of Parliament in the 17th century. Became major military leader of the Roundheads, eventually capturing and beheading Charles I. Dissolved monarchy, setup a republic. Served a military dictator (i.e. - absolute monarch) until his death.
Peter IRomanov tsar of Russia. Following a tour of Europe (Grand Embassy). Sough to modernize, Westernize Russia. Instituted reforms and moved capital to St. Petersburg.
Phillip IISon of Charles V, ruler of Spain and the Spanish Netherlands. Devout Catholic, who sent Spanish Armada in attempt to re-convert England to Catholicism.
PlutarchItalian poet, often called "The Father of Humanism." Wrote in both Latin and Italian.
Rene DescartesFrench philosopher and mathematician who famously stated "I think, therefore I am." Sought, through deductive reasoning, to understand the connection between mind and matter.
SuleymanLeader of the Ottoman Empire. Sometimes named "Magnificent" or "Lawgiver."
Thomas HobbesEnglish philosopher who write the book "The Leviathan." Argued that life without a government is "nasty, brutish and short." Human beings need an absolute monarch to keep order in society.
Thomas JeffersonAmerican Enlightenment thinker, who heavily borrowed ideas from Locke when writing The Declaration of Independence.
VoltaireFrench Enlightenment writer plays, essays. Also known for his satirical works, such as "Candide." Famously stated "I do not agree with what you say but I will defend to the death your write to say it."
William & MaryProtestant rulers of England who ascended to throne as part of the Glorious Revolution. Willingly signed the English Bill of Rights, establishing a constitutional monarchy in England.
William HarveyEnglish physician whose work correctly described the circulation of blood through the human body.
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