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Important People in Psychology

a data set by xnity
created February 29, 2016
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NameTheories or Contributions
Edward TitchnerHe introduced structuralism to the United States, and was a student of Wilhelm Wudnt; He also encouraged introspection. Broke consciousness down into three elements: physical sensations, feeling, and images
William James1842-1910; Field: functionalism; Contributions: studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studies: Pragmatism, The Meaning of Truth; Published "The Principles of Psychology", the science's first textbook. Established the Theory of Functionalism: How mental processes function in our lives.; Focused on how humans and animals use mental processes for adaptation; focuses on the environment
John B Watsonbehaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
Freud1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms (expanded by Anna Freud), psychoanalysis, transference; Focus on early childhood experiences, unconscious mind, and human sexuality; His Psychoanalytic theory is highly controversial
Abraham Maslowhumanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization, transcendence
Carl Rogers1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
William JamesThought of the idea "Stream of consciousness" - a constant flow of thoughts which consisted of external or internal information
James Watson & B.F. SkinnerLoss of consciousness; early 20th century; only observable and verifiable behavior is important
FreudA concept by this person which says that the unconscious controls behavior and feelings; that the unconscious is hidden; and that the unconscious can be revealed in dreams or slips of the tongue or hypnosis
FreudThis person's theory of daydreams stated that it was a means of expressing forbidden desires - sexual or hostile
PulaskiThis person thought that daydreams built cognitive and creative skills and allowed people to survive difficult circumstances
SingerThis person thought that daydreams were a way of processing cognitive information and a means of dealing with "unfinished business"
FreudHis theory of dreaming stated that unconscious wishes translated into dreams; "Dreams are the royal road to the unconscious"
Hobson and McCarleyThis duo thought that dreams were random outbursts of nerve cell activity; the brain translates it into a story
Crick And MitchisonThis duo suggested that the brain was freeing itself from repetitions of thought - that it was the brain's way of "housekeeping"; this would allow the person to be open to new information
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