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Geologic Time

Collected from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologic_time_scale and other wikipedia pages.
a data set by Aaron
created February 5, 2016
COPY & EDIT
FAMILY TREE
EpochPeriodEraEonStart, myaFlora and FaunaClimateOrogeniesContinentsExtinction EventStart of Period?Start of Era?Start of Eon?
HoloceneQuaternaryCenozoicPhanerozoic0.0117Rise of modern humansModernHolocene
PleistoceneQuaternaryCenozoicPhanerozoic2.58Large mammalsGlaciationModernYes
PlioceneNeogeneCenozoicPhanerozoic5.333Origin of existing genera of mammals; Australopithicenes, Homo habilis; glaciationCoolModern
MioceneNeogeneCenozoicPhanerozoic23.03Modern mammal families recognizable, including horses; grassesCoolingModernYes
OligocenePaleogeneCenozoicPhanerozoic33.9Rapid diversification of mammals and flowering plants; warm but coolingWarm but coolingModern
EocenePaleogeneCenozoicPhanerozoic56Archaic mammals flourish; primitive whales; moderate, cooling climate, with formation of ice capModerate, cooling climate, with formation of ice capAlpine, Hellenic; end of LaramideModern
PaleocenePaleogeneCenozoicPhanerozoic66Tropical; appearance of modern plants; diversification of mammalsTropicalHimalayan and AlpineIndian subcontinent collides with AsiaYesYes
CretaceousMesozoicPhanerozoic145Flowering plants proliferate; Tyrannosaurs, Titanosaurs, duck bills, horned dinosaurs; modern crocodilians; mosasaurs, sharks; primitive birds; monotremes, marsupial, and placental mammals; Laramide and Sevier orogenies; CO2 levels like todayCO2 levels like todayLaramide and SevierBreak up of Gondwana (most landmasses in S Hemi)K-T, aka K-Pg; iridium layer indicates asteroid impact; Chicxulub crater in Gulf of Mexico; Deccan TrapsYes
JurassicMesozoicPhanerozoic201Gymnosperms and ferns; sauropods, carosaurs; stegosaurs; small mammals; first birds and lizards; ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs; Nevadan orogeny; CO2 levels 4-5x present levelsCO2 levels 4-5x present levels; hot and dryNevadanBreak up of Pangaea into Gondwana and LaurasiaYes
TriassicMesozoicPhanerozoic252Archosaurs (diapsids including birds and crocodilians) dominant as dinosaurs, ichthyosaurs, nothosaurs, pterosaurs; Cynodonts become smaller and more mammal-like; first mammals and crodilia; large aquatic amphibians; modern corals, teleost fish, insects appear; Andean (SA), Cimmerian (Asia), Rangitata (NZ) orogeniesAndean (SA), Cimmerian (Asia), Rangitata (NZ)PangaeaTr-J; end of conodonts, 34% of marine genera, all pseudosuchians (non-dinosaurian archosaurs) but crocodylomorphs, therapsids, many large amphibians; possible causes: gradual climate change, massive volcanism (CAMP), asteroid impact (no candidate craters) YesYes
LopingianPermianPaleozoicPhanerozoic254PangaeaP-T; most severe, with 96% of all marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate species lost; only known mass extinction of insects, 57% of families, 83% of genera; possible causes: bolide impact, massive volcanism, coal and gas fires from Siberian Traps, runaway greenhouse effect from methanogens (methane-producing microbes)
GuadalupianPermianPaleozoicPhanerozoic272Pangaea
CisuralianPermianPaleozoicPhanerozoic299PangaeaYes
PennsylvanianCarboniferousPaleozoicPhanerozoic323Pangaea
MississippianCarboniferousPaleozoicPhanerozoic359Merging of Laurussia and GondwanaYes
DevonianPaleozoicPhanerozoic419Gondwana, Laurussia, SiberaLate D; Kellwasser Event, 375-360 mya: 19% of families, 50% of genera; Hangenberg Event: end of Devonian; extended events over 10s of millions of years; possible causes: anoxia from cooling or volcanism, cometYes
SilurianPaleozoicPhanerozoic444GondwanaYes
OrdovicianPaleozoicPhanerozoic485GondwanaO-S; two pulses 4 my apart; loss of 60% of marine invertebrates; cause: movement of Gondwana into south pole region, leading to global cooling, glaciation, and falling sea levels (disrupting habitats along continental shelves)Yes
CambrianPaleozoicPhanerozoic541Break up of Pannotia into many with Gondwana as largestYesYesYes
EdiacaranNeoproterozoicProterozoic635Yes
CryogenianNeoproterozoicProterozoic720Yes
TonianNeoproterozoicProterozoic1000YesYes
StenianMesoproterozoicProterozoic1200Yes
EctasianMesoproterozoicProterozoic1400Yes
CalymmianMesoproterozoicProterozoic1600YesYes
StatherianPaleoproterozoicProterozoic1800Yes
OrosirianPaleoproterozoicProterozoic2050Yes
RhyacianPaleoproterozoicProterozoic2300Yes
SiderianPaleoproterozoicProterozoic2500YesYesYes
NeoarcheanArchean2800Yes
MesoarcheanArchean3200Yes
PaleoarcheanArchean3600Yes
EoarcheanArchean4000YesYes
Early ImbrianHadean4100Yes
NectarianHadean4300Yes
Basic GroupsHadean4500Yes
CrypticHadean4567YesYes
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