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Ecosystems

a data set by ewendland
created October 11, 2016
COPY & EDIT
FAMILY TREE
Red light cannot penetrate deep into the ocean, therefore red animals are essentially invisible.Why are most deep sea animals red?
Sulfur fixing, chemotrophic bacteriaWhat is the main source of energy at hydrothermal vents?
Energy is recycled back into the ocean.What role do whale falls play in the ocean community?
They must be able to eat whatever swims by, even if it is as big as they are.Fish in the deep sea tend to have large mouths and sharp teeth because:
Area most influenced by high and low water marks & breaking waves.What is the "foreshore" of a beach?
Have hard shells and methods to avoid desiccation (drying out).What adaptations do animals that live in the upper intertidal zones have that are different from those in lower intertidal zones?
Changes in salinity or temperature, grazing by urchins, strong ocean stormsWhat are natural causes of kelp deforestation?
Low temperatures, high pressure, absence of lightWhat are some challenges for animals living in the deep sea?
Coral ReefWhich ecosystem is limited to shallow, clear, warm, & sun-filled waters?
Strong wave action, dessication (drying out), changes in salinity and temperatureWhat are some things animals in the intertidal zone have to adapt to?
Serve as nurseries for fish, decrease erosion, shield shores from wave actionWhy are mangroves important?
Dampen wave action, habitat for animals, high productivityWhat are some ecological roles of kelp?
The fish and animals that live there disappear as well.What happens when kelp forests disappear?
Canopy, Understory, Algal TurfWhat are the three zones of a kelp forest?
Sharp teeth, red color, bioluminescenceWhat are some adaptations by deep sea animals to live in their environment?
Bury themselves in sediment, move to a different area.What are two ways in which animals in an estuary deal with changing temperature?
Wave action, changing salinity, & changing temperaturesWhat are some of the physical factors that animals in the intertidal zones have to deal with?
Erosion and deposition are reduced, keeping the coastline relatively stable.What is the purpose of hard stabilization like jetties or seawalls?
Low tide zoneWhat intertidal zone region would you expect soft-bodied organisms to live in?
Most life is found is at the surface; very little is in the middle, and life increases again at the bottom.Describes how life is distributed through the ocean.
High tide zoneWhat part of the intertidal zone is only underwater for a couple of hours each day?
They have high productivity and lots of animals.Why are hydrothermal vents different than most deep sea ecosystems?
25%What percentage of life in the ocean lives on coral reefs?
Lure prey, camouflage, find mateWhat are some typical uses of bioluminescence?
They have photosynthetic algae (zooxanthellae) living in their tentacles.Corals are known to photosynthesize. How does this happen, since corals are animals and do not have chloroplasts in their cells?
Area submerged only during the highest tides and severest storms.What is the "backshore" of a beach?
Divergent spreading zonesWhat types of boundaries are hydrothermal vents found at?
Continental ShelfThe shallow area of the ocean floor nearest to the shoreline is called the:
Algae growing on the ocean floorWhat is not a food source for the deep sea?
They are found only in cool/cold, temperate waters.Where are Kelp Forests found?
The Continental Shelf, Continental Slope, and Continental RiseThe Continental Margin consists of what 3 parts?
Continental RiseThe deep, shallow-sloped area of the ocean formed by deposits of sediment at the base of the continental slope which transitions into the abyssal plain is called:
Fish in areas with little sunlight have large eyes; deep sea fish have small eyes or are blind.What is true about the eyes of deep sea fish?
Continental SlopeThe steeply sloped region of the ocean floor that rapidly drops to the bottom of the ocean basin is called the:
EstuaryWhich ecosystem is best described as a semi-enclosed area where salt water from the ocean mixes with fresh water from the land?
Fresh water is mixing with salt water, and due to evaporation.The salinity in an estuary varies greatly. Why is this?
Sunlit zoneTop layer of the ocean; receives the most amount of light; range is 0m to 200m (0ft to 660ft).
Twilight zoneArea with some light, but not enough for photosynthesis; range is about 200m to 1,000m (660ft to 3,300ft).
Dark zoneArea with almost no light that extends down to the abyssal plains; range is about 1,000m to 4,000m (3,300ft to 13,100ft).
Abyssal zoneArea beyond the continental slope where the sea bed flattens out; range is about 4,000m to 6,000m (13,100ft to 19,700ft).
Hadal zoneArea where the sea floor plunges to depths greater than 6000m (trenches); range is about 6,000m to 11,000m (19,700ft to 36,100ft).
Fringing reefReef that is directly attached to a shore
Barrier reefReef that is separated from the mainland by a lagoon
AtollReef that surrounds a lagoon; no central island/land
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