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Conflicts During the Cold War

Although the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union did not escalate into direct confrontation, there were a lot of conflicts around the world involving these two superpowers and their respective allies, which included ongoing regional conflicts, wars of independence, civil wars, and revolutions. Use this data set to learn about these conflicts and the tense relationship on the international stage during this period (1947 - 1991).
a data set by WorldExplorer
created May 31, 2017
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FAMILY TREE
ConflictPictureLocationContinentDate of StartDate of EndCombatant 1 (Mainly Pro-Western Side)Combatant 2 (Mainly Pro-Communist Side)DiscriptionOutcome
Korean ConflictKorean PeninsulaAsiaAugust 15, 1945OngoingSouth Korea supported by United States, Japan, United Kingdom, and FranceNorth Korea supported by Soviet Union and People's Republic of ChinaThe division of Korea that occurred at the end of World War II led to the Korean War in 1950 and the conflict remains today. Korea was devided at the 38th parallel; Korean Demilitarized Zone was established.
War in Vietnam (1945 - 1946)Southern VietnamAsiaSeptember 13, 1945March 30, 1946British Raj, France, and JapanViet MinhA post–World War II armed conflict between the western imperialist powers and the anti-imperialist Viet Minh for the control of Vietnam. Restoration of French rule in Indochina (Southeast Asia); First Indochina War began.
Iran Crisis of 1946IranAsiaNovember 15, 1945December 15, 1946Imperial State of Iran supported by United States and United KingdomAzerbaijan People's Republic and Republic of Mahabad supported by Soviet UnionThe fighting between Iranian forces and the alliance of the Kurdish and People's Azerbaijani forces, which resulted in a total of 2000 casualties.Dissolutions of Azerbaijan People's Republic and the Republic of Mahabad; Soviet Union withdrew from Iran.
Hukbalahap RebellionCentral Luzon, PhilippinesAsiaMarch 29, 1946May 17, 1954Philippine government supported by United StatesHukbalahap allegedly supported by Soviet UnionThe rebellion was started by former Hukbalahap soldiers against the Philippine government.The rebellion was put down through a series of reforms and military victories under the presidency of Ramon Magsaysay; The rebel leader Luis Taruc surrendered and accepted a 15-year imprisonment.
Greek Civil WarGreeceEuropeMarch 30, 1946October 16, 1949Hellenic Army supported by United Kingdom and United StatesDemocratic Army of Greece supported by Yugoslavia, Albania, and BulgariaThe war between the Greek government army and the military branch of the Greek Communist Party.Victory of the Greek government troops; Greece's membership in NATO (1952); It defined the ideological balance of power in the Aegean Sea for the entire Cold War.
Chinese Civil WarChinaAsiaMarch 31, 1946May 1, 1950Republic of China supported by United StatesCommunist Party of China supported by Soviet UnionThe civil war began in August 1927, ceased in 1936 due to the Second Sino-Japanese War, resumed in 1946, and continued until 1950.Major combat ended, but small pockets of insurgency continued through the 1960s; Communist took over the mainland China and Hainan and established the People's Republic of China; Government of the Republic of China was relocated to Taiwan; A lasting political and military standoff between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait
Corfu Channel IncidentStraits of CorfuEuropeMay 15, 1946November 13, 1946United KingdomAlbaniaIt consists of three separate events involving Royal Navy ships in the Channel of Corfu, which resulted in the broken diplomatic relations between United Kingdom and Albania until 1991. World Court case in 1949; Albania paid compensations to United Kingdom.
First Indochina WarFrench Indochina, mainly North VietnamAsiaDecember 19, 1946August 1, 1954France supported by United StatesViet Minh supported by Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, and East GermanyThe fighting between French forces and their Viet Minh opponents in the South, which gradually escalated into the Vietnam War in 1955.Viet Minh victory; Vietnam was partitioned between North (controlled by the Viet Minh) and South (controlled by the State of Vietnam); State of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia achieved independence.
1948 Czechoslovak coup d'étatCzechoslovakiaEuropeFebruary 20, 1948February 25, 1948Czechoslovak National Socialist Party, Czechoslovak People's Party, Democratic Party (Slovakia), and Czech Social Democratic PartyCommunist Party of Czechoslovakia supported by Soviet UnionCommunist Party of Czechoslovakia assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, marking the onset of four decades of communist rule in the country.Appointment of a Communist-dominated government; It unified Western countries against the Communist bloc, spurring events such as quick adoption of the Marshall Plan and the creation of a state in West Germany.
Arab–Israeli ConflictMiddle EastAsiaMay 15, 1948OngoingIsrael supported by United Kingdom, France, and United StatesArab League (including Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Palestine) supported by Soviet Union and IranAn on-going series of political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel since 1948. Establishment of Israel and All-Palestine Protectorate; Jordanian annexation of the West Bank; Dissolution of All-Palestine Government and Egyptian occupation of the Gaza Strip; Israeli occupation of the Sinai Peninsula, West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Golan Heights; Israeli-Egyptian peace and formation of the Israeli Civil Administration; Oslo Accords and formation of the Palestinian National Authority; Israel-Jordan peace treaty (1994).
Malayan EmergencyFederation of MalayaAsiaJune 16, 1948July 12, 1960United Kingdome and Commonwealth armed forces (including Federation of Malaya, Australia, New Zealand, Rhodesia, and Fiji) supported by United StatesMalayan National Liberation Army supported by People's Republic of China, Viet Minh, North Vietnam, Soviet Union, and Indonesia A guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya.Independence of the Malaya; Victory of the Anti-communist forces; Communist leader Chin Peng was exiled from Malaya.
Berlin BlockadeAllied-occupied GermanyEuropeJune 24, 1948May 12, 1949United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South AfricaSoviet UnionSoviet Union blocked the Western Allies' access to sectors of Berlin under Western control and the Western Allies responded by organizing the Berlin airlift.Soviet Union lifted the blockade of West Berlin; One of the first major international crises of the Cold War, which highlighted the competing ideological and economic visions for postwar Europe.
Korean WarKorean PeninsulaAsiaJune 25, 1950July 27, 1953South Korea supported by UN Command with United States being the principal forceNorth Korea supported by People's Republic of China and Soviet UnionThe conflict between the North Korea and South Korea in which at least 2.5 million people lost their lives.North Korean invasion of South Korea, subsequent American-led invasion of North Korea, and subsequent Chinese invasion of South Korea were all repelled; Korean Armistice Agreement was signed.
Cuban RevolutionCubaNorth AmericaJuly 26, 1953January 1, 1959Republic of Cuba26th of July MovementAn armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement and its allies against the right-wing authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.Overthrow of Fulgencio Batista's government; Establishment of a new government led by Fidel Castro; United States embargo against Cuba.
Laotian Civil WarLaosAsiaNovember 9, 1953December 2, 1975Kingdom of Laos, South Vietnam, Thailand, and United StatesPathet Lao and North Vietnam supported by Soviet Union and People's Republic of ChinaA war between the Communist Pathet Lao and the Royal Lao Government.Victory of Pathet Lao and North Vietnam; Establishment of the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
First Taiwan Strait CrisisStrait of TaiwanAsiaSeptember 3, 1954May 1, 1955Republic of China and United StatesPeople's Republic of ChinaA brief armed conflict that took place between the governments of the People's Republic of China and the Taiwan-based Republic of China.People's Republic of China seized the Yijiangshan Islands; United States and Republic of China navies evacuated military and civilians from Dachen Islands; Formosa Resolution of 1955 and Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty between Republic of China and United States.
Vietnam WarSouth Vietnam, North Vietnam, Cambodia, and LaosAsiaNovember 1, 1955April 30, 1975South Vietnam supported by the United States, South Korea, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist alliesNorth Vietnam supported by Soviet Union, People's Republic of China and other communist alliesThe second of the Indochina Wars that was fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam supported by two sides of the Cold War superpowers. Victory of the North Vietnamese; Withdrawal of American-led forces from Indochina; Communist governments took power in South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos; Reunification of North and South Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Hungarian Revolution of 1956Hungarian People's RepublicEuropeOctober 23, 1956November 10, 1956Hungarian revolutionariesHungarian government and Soviet UnionA nationwide revolt against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies.Revolution was crushed; The first major threat to Soviet control since the end of World War II.
Suez CrisisEgyptAfricaOctober 29, 1956November 7, 1956Israel, United Kingdom, and FranceEgyptInvasion of Egypt by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France with the goals of regaining Western control of the Suez Canal and removing Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser from power. The British and French were forced to withdraw under heavy political pressure and a UN peace keeping force was sent to establish order; Israeli occupation of Sinai (until March 1957); Resignation of Anthony Eden as British Prime Minister, and the end of Britain's role as a superpower; Guy Mollet's position as French Prime Minister was heavily damaged.
Second Taiwan Strait CrisisStrait of TaiwanAsiaAugust 23, 1958October 6, 1958Republic of China and United StatesPeople's Republic of ChinaContinuation of the First Taiwan Strait Crisis.Ceasefire; The situation did not change until the normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China in 1979.
1959 Tibetan UprisingTibetAsiaMarch 10, 1959March 21, 1959Chushi Gangdruk supported by United States, United Kingdom, and Republic of ChinaPeople's Republic of ChinaAn armed conflict between Tibetan rebels and the People's Liberation Army in regions subjected to socialist reform.The uprising was crushed; Exile of Dalai Lama.
Congo CrisisRepublic of the CongoAfricaJuly 5, 1960November 25, 1965Democratic Republic of the Congo supported by United States and BelgiumKwilu and Simba rebels supported by Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, and CubaA period of political upheaval and conflict in the Republic of the Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) between 1960 and 1965.The Congo was established as an independent, unitary state ruled by Joseph-Désiré Mobutu.
Guatemalan Civil WarGuatemalaNorth AmericaNovember 13, 1960December 19, 1996Guatemalan military supported by United States and ArgentinaGuatemalan National Revolutionary Unity supported by Cuba and NicaraguaA civil war between the government of Guatemala and various leftist rebel groups supported chiefly by ethnic Maya indigenous people and Ladino peasants.Guatemalan genocide against the Mayan population during the civil war; Peace accord was signed in 1996.
Angolan War of IndependenceAngolaAfricaFebruary 4, 1961January 15, 1975Portugal and South AfricaPro-communist: People's Movement of Liberation of Angola (MPLA); Anti-communist: National Liberation Front of Angola (UPA/FNLA) and National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)A multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's overseas province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement.MPLA, FNLA, and UNITA received political victory; Ceasefire after the Carnation Revolution; Alvor Agreement and Angolan independence in 1975; Start of the Angolan Civil War.
Bay of Pigs InvasionCubaNorth AmericaApril 17, 1961April 19, 1961United States and Cuban Democratic Revolutionary Front CubaA failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 in order to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro.Decisive Cuban government victory; It strengthened the position of Castro's leadership and the relations between Cuba and the Soviet Union.
Berlin Crisis of 1961East GermanyEuropeJune 4, 1961November 9, 1961United States, United Kingdom, and FranceSoviet UnionSoviet Union's ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of Western armed forces from West Berlin culminated in the building of the Berlin Wall.Berlin wall was built and borders were sealed between East and West Germany.
Nicaraguan RevolutionNicaraguaNorth AmericaJuly 23, 1961April 25, 1990Somoza government supported by United States, Israel and other alliesSandinista National Liberation Front supported by Soviet Union, Cuba, East Germany and other alliesIt includes the rising opposition and overthrow of the Somoza dictatorship led by Sandinista National Liberation Front as well as its subsequent efforts to govern Nicaragua and its fighting with the Contras.Overthrow of Somoza government; Insurgency of the Contras; Electoral victory of the National Opposition Union in 1990; Sandinista National Liberation Front retained most of their executive apparatus.
Cuban Missile CrisisCubaNorth AmericaOctober 16, 1962October 28, 1962United States, Italy, and TurkeySoviet Union and CubaConfrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. Withdrawal of the Soviet Union's nuclear missiles from Cuba; Withdrawal of American nuclear missiles from Turkey and Italy; Agreement with the Soviet Union that the United States would never invade Cuba without direct provocation; Creation of a nuclear hotline between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Guinea-Bissau War of IndependenceGuinea-Bissau, GuineaAfricaJanuary 23, 1963September 11, 1974PortugalAfrican Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) supported by People's Republic of China, Cuba, Soviet Union and other alliesAn armed independence conflict that took place in Portuguese Guinea.Portuguese forces were unable to neutralize the action of the PAIGC; PAIGC was unable to defeat and expel Portuguese forces from Guinea; Carnation Revolution in Portugal and consequent independence of Guinea-Bissau.
1964 Brazilian coup d'étatBrazilSouth AmericaMarch 31, 1964April 1, 1964Brazilian armed forces supported by United StatesBrazilian government under President João Goulart A series of events in Brazil that led to the overthrow of President João Goulart by part of the Brazilian Armed Forces, supported by the United States government.João Goulart government was overthrown; Military Junta assumed power.
Rhodesian Bush WarRhodesia, Zambia, and MozambiqueAfricaJuly 4, 1964December 12, 1979Rhodesian government (later the Zimbabwe Rhodesian government) supported by South Africa, Portugal, and IsraelZimbabwe African National Union supported by People's Republic of China, Libya, Tanzania, and Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia; Zimbabwe African People's Union supported by Soviet Union, Zambia, Cuba, and East GermanyA civil war in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe-Rhodesia) with three forces against one another: the Rhodesian government, Zimbabwe African National Union, and Zimbabwe African People's Union.Victory for African revolutionary movement; Independence of the Republic of Zimbabwe was recognised internationally.
Mozambican War of IndependenceMozambiqueAfricaSeptember 25, 1964September 8, 1974Portugal supported by South Africa, Rhodesia, Malawi, United States, United Kingdom, and IsraelMozambique Liberation Front supported by Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, Cuba, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Tanzania, Zambia, Egypt, Algeria, and Gaddafi regime in Libya An armed conflict between the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front and Portugal.Ceasefire and independence of Mozambique after the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon; Mozambican Civil War began.
Dominican Civil WarSanto Domingo, Dominican RepublicNorth AmericaApril 24, 1965September 3, 1965Dominican Republic (Loyalist faction) supported by United States and Inter-American Peace ForceDominican Republic (Constitutionalist faction)An armed conflict between the military force loyal to acting President Donald Reid Cabral and supporters of constitutionally elected former President Juan Bosch.Victory of Loyalist and election of Joaquín Balaguer into presidency.
South African Border WarSouth West Africa (Namibia), Angola, and ZambiaAfricaAugust 26, 1966March 21, 1990South Africa and South West Africa supported by National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, National Liberation Front of Angola and PortugalSouth West Africa People's Organization and South West Africa National Union supported by People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, Cuba, and African National CongressAlso known as the Namibian War of Independence, it was fought between the South African Defence Force and the South West African People's Organisation, which resulted in some of the largest battles on the African continent since World War II.South West Africa gained independence from South Africa as Republic of Namibia; Namibian general elections under a universal franchise held; South West African People's Organisation government assumed power in Windhoek.
War of AttritionSinai PeninsulaAsiaJuly 1, 1967August 7, 1970IsraelEgypt, Palestine Liberation Organization, Jordan, Soviet Union, and CubaA fighting between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Palestine Liberation Organization and their allies from 1967 to 1970 as part of the Arab–Israeli conflict. Egyptian front: Continued Israeli control of Sinai and creation of the Bar Lev Line; Jordanian front: Black September.
Second Malayan EmergencyMalaysiaAsiaJune 17, 1968December 2, 1989Malaysian federal security forces and Thailand supported by United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and United StatesMalayan National Liberation Army supported by People's Republic of China and Soviet UnionAn armed conflict occurred in Malaysia involving the Malayan Communist Party and Malaysian federal security forces.Communists agreed to a ceasefire; Peace Agreement of Hat Yai 1989 was signed between the communists and the governments of Malaysia and Thailand; Dissolution of the Malayan Communist Party.
Warsaw Pact Invasion of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakiaEuropeAugust 20, 1968August 21, 1968CzechoslovakiaSoviet Union, Bulgaria, Poland, and HungaryWarsaw Pact forces entered Czechoslovakia to stop the reforms known as "Prague Spring" instigated by Alexander Dubcek.Victory of Warsaw Pact; Moscow Protocol; The resignation of Alexander Dubček as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia; The election of Gustáv Husák as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and beginning of the Normalization era; Soviet military presence in Czechoslovakia until 1991; Withdrawal of Albania from the Warsaw Pact in September 1968.
1969 Libyan coup d'étatLibyaAfricaSeptember 1, 1969September 1, 1969Kingdom of LibyaFree Officers Movement supported by Soviet UnionA military coup in Libya carried out by a group of rebel military officers led by Colonel Muammar Gaddafi.Overthrow and abolition of the Monarchy; Establishment of Libyan Arab Republic; Establishment of Muammar Gaddafi's regime.
Cambodian Civil WarCambodiaAsiaMarch 11, 1967 April 17, 1975Kingdom of Cambodia (1967–1970)/Khmer Republic (1970–1975), United States, and South Vietnam supported by India, Canada, and FranceNational United Front of Kampuchea (including Khmer Rouge, Khmer Rumdo, Khmer Việt Minh, North Vietnam, and Việt Cộng) supported by People's Republic of China, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Soviet UnionA military conflict that fought by the forces Khmer Rouge and their allies North Vietnam and the Viet Cong against the government forces of the Kingdom of Cambodia (later the Khmer Republic).Victory of Khmer Rouge and creation of Democratic Kampuchea; Beginning of the Cambodian genocide, one of the bloodiest in history.
1973 Chilean coup d'étatChileSouth AmericaSeptember 11, 1973September 11, 1973Chilean armed forces supported by United StatesChilean government and Revolutionary Left Movement supported by CubaChilean armed forces and national police overthrew the socialist President Salvador Allende and put the country under military control.Popular Unity government was overthrown and Salvador Allende committed suicide; Military Junta Government led by General Augusto Pinochet assumed power.
Yom Kippur WarBoth banks of the Suez Canal, Golan Heights and surrounding regionsAsiaOctober 6, 1973October 25, 1973IsraelArab coalition led by Egypt and SyriaAlso known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, it was a war fought by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel.The Egyptian army occupied the eastern coast of the Suez Canal with the exception of the Israeli crossing point near Deversoir; The Israeli army occupied 1600 square kilometers of territory on the southwestern coast of the Suez Canal, within 100 km from Cairo, and encircled an Egyptian enclave in the east bank; The Israeli army occupied 500 square kilometers of the Syrian Bashan, on top of the Golan Heights, which brought it within 20 miles of Damascus.
Carnation RevolutionPortugalEuropeApril 25, 1974April 25, 1974Estado Novo RegimeArmed Forces MovementA military coup coupled with civil resistance with the goal of overthrowing the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.Collapse of the Estado Novo regime; National Salvation Junta was formed; Revolutionary Council of Portugal was established; Some political parties formed before/during/after the revolution became influential in elections; All colonies (except East Timor and Macau) were granted independence in 1975.
Ethiopian Civil WarEthiopiaAfricaSeptember 12, 1974June 4, 1991Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front supported by United States, Somalia, and People's Republic of ChinaDerg and People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia supported by Soviet Union, Libya, East Germany, Cuba and North KoreaThe civil war began when the Marxist Derg staged a coup d'état against Emperor Haile Selassie and lasted until the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front overthrew the government in 1991.Fall of the Communist Mengistu government; Withdrawal of Cuban military.
Lebanese Civil WarLebanonAsiaApril 13, 1975October 13, 1990Lebanese Front and Army of Free Lebanon / South Lebanon ArmyLebanese National Movement / Jammoul and Palestine Liberation Organization A multifaceted civil war in Lebanon started between Maronite and Palestine Liberation Organization with later involvement of their respective allies and foreign powers such as Israel and Syria.Taif Agreement; Palestine Liberation Organization's expulsion from Lebanon; Syrian occupation of most of Lebanon; Conflict in South Lebanon.
Cambodian–Vietnamese WarCambodia, Southern Vietnam, and Eastern ThailandAsiaMay 1, 1975September 26, 1989Democratic Kampuchea supported by People's Republic of ChinaVietnam and People's Republic of Kampuchea supported by Soviet UnionAn armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam supported by Soviet Union and Democratic Kampuchea supported by People's Republic of China.Removal of the Khmer Rouge from power; End of the Cambodian Genocide; Democratic Kampuchea was replaced by People's Republic of Kampuchea; Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia; Continued fighting between various Cambodian factions; Border conflicts between Vietnam and China and between Vietnam and Thailand.
Angolan Civil WarAngolaAfricaNovember 11, 1975April 4, 2002National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA), Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC), and South Africa supported by United States, Zaire, and People's Republic of ChinaPeople's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), and Cuba supported by Soviet Union and East GermanyA major civil conflict in Angola between two former liberation movements that began immediately after Angola's independence from Portugal. MPLA victory by 1992; Withdrawal of all foreign forces in 1989; Participation of UNITA and FNLA, as political parties, in the new political system; Dissolution of the armed forces of the FNLA; Resistance of FLEC continued beyond 2002.
Indonesian Invasion of East TimorEast TimorAsiaDecember 7, 1975 July 17, 1976Indonesian National Armed Forces and East Timor dissidents supported by United States, Israel, and TurkeyEast TimorIndonesian military invaded East Timor under the pretext of anti-colonialism, which led to a violent quarter-century of occupation.East Timor was annexed by Indonesia.
1976 Argentine coup d'étatArgentinaSouth AmericaMarch 24, 1976March 24, 1976Argentine armed forces supported by United StatesArgentine governmentA right-wing coup that overthrew Isabel Perón's government.Overthrow of Isabel Martínez de Perón; Jorge Rafael Videla became the President of Argentina.
Shaba IShaba, ZaireAfricaMarch 8, 1977May 26, 1977Zaire, Morocco, Egypt, France, and Belgium supported by United States, People's Republic of China, and SudanFront for Congolese National Liberation supported by Angola, East Germany, and Soviet UnionA conflict in Zaire's Shaba Province between Zairian government and a group of about 2000 Katangan Congolese soldiers.Front for Congolese National Liberation was expelled from Shaba.
Mozambican Civil WarPeople's Republic of MozambiqueAfricaMay 30, 1977 October 4, 1992Mozambican National Resistance supported by Rhodesia, South Africa, Malawi, and IsraelMozambique Liberation Front, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania supported by MalawiThe civil war began after the end of the war of independence between the ruling party Front for Liberation of Mozambique and Mozambique Resistance Movement. Rome General Peace Accords; Multiparty elections in 1994; Deployment of United Nations Operation in Mozambique.
Ogaden WarOgaden, EthiopiaAfricaJuly 13, 1977March 15, 1978Somalia and Western Somali Liberation FrontEthiopia, Soviet Union, Cuba, and South YemenAlso known as the Ethio-Somali War, it was a Somali military offensive over the disputed Ethiopian region Ogaden starting with the Somali Democratic Republic's invasion of Ethiopia.Ethiopian victory due to Soviet intervention; Somalia broke all ties with the Soviet Union and the Second World (except China and Romania).
Shaba IIShaba, ZaireAfricaMay 11, 1978June 1978Zaire, France, Belgium, and United StatesFront for the National Liberation of the Congo supported by Angola, Cuba (alleged), and Soviet Union (alleged)The conflict was fought by rebels from the Congolese National Liberation Front in an attempt to achieve Shaba's secession from the Zairian regime of Mobutu Sese Seko.Zairian victory; Mutual end of support for other nations' rebel groups.
Iranian RevolutionIranAsiaJanuary 7, 1978February 11, 1979Imperial State of IranCouncil of the Islamic Revolution and Interim Government of IranAlso known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, it refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi and its eventual replacement with an Islamic Republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.Overthrow of the Shah and monarchy; 1979 energy crisis; Establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran headed by Velayat-e-Faqih with referendum; Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran replaced Persian Constitution of 1906 with referendum; Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini became the new supreme leader of Iran; Iran hostage crisis; Beginning of the Iran-Iraq War.
Sino-Vietnamese WarChina–Vietnam borderAsiaFebruary 17, 1979March 16, 1979People's Republic of ChinaVietnam supported by Soviet UnionAlso known as the Third Indochina War, it was a brief border war fought between the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.Chinese withdrawal from Vietnam; Continued Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia until 1989; Continuation of border clashes between China and Vietnam until 1990.
Salvadoran Civil WarEl SalvadorNorth AmericaOctober 15, 1979January 16, 1992Salvadoran military government supported by United States, Chile, Argentina, Israel, and Republic of ChinaFarabundo Martí National Liberation Front supported by Cuba and NicaraguaA conflict between the military-led government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front.Restructuring of Salvadoran Armed Forces; National Guard, National Police and Treasury Police were dissolved; Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front guerrilla was dissolved; Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front became a political party, and its combatants were exonerated.
Soviet–Afghan WarAfghanistanAsiaDecember 24, 1979February 15, 1989Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen supported by Pakistan, United States, People's Republic of China, West Germany, and United KingdomSoviet Union and Democratic Republic of AfghanistanSoviet troops invaded Afghanistan. Insurgent groups known as the mujahideen fought against the Soviet Army and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.Soviet failure to quell the Afghan mujahideen insurgency; Geneva Accord (1988); Withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan; Continuation of the Afghan Civil War.
Internal Conflict in PeruPeruSouth AmericaMay 17, 1980OngoingPeruvian armed forces and Rondas Campesinas supported by United StatesShining Path and Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement supported by Cuba and Libyan Arab JamahiriyaAn ongoing armed conflict between the government of Peru and some terrorist organizations such as the insurgent People's Guerilla Army and the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement.The conflict was largely diminished by 2000, but low level resurgence still exists.
Invasion of GrenadaGrenadaNorth AmericaOctober 25, 1983December 15, 1983United States and Grenadan Opposition Caribbean Peace Force (including Barbados, Jamaica, and other Caribbean countries)People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada and CubaAlso known as Operation Urgent Fury, it was a United States–led invasion of the Caribbean island nation of Grenada.Victory of United States and Caribbean Peace Force; People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada was deposed; Cuban military presence was defeated; Restoration of former government.
1986 United States Bombing of LibyaLibyaAfricaApril 15, 1986April 15, 1986United StatesLibyaAlso known as Operation El Dorado Canyon, it comprised air strikes by the United States against Libya in retaliation for the 1986 West Berlin discotheque bombing.Ground targets were destroyed; Failed Libyan Scud missile response; Muammar Gaddafi survived.
Revolutions of 1989Central and Eastern EuropeEuropeMarch 9, 1989April 27, 1992Citizens of Eastern Bloc nationsGovernments of Eastern Bloc nationsIt belonged to a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.End of the Cold War and end of the Soviet Union as a superpower; Transfer of power to capitalist governments in Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Albania; Violent transfer of power to a capitalist government in Romania; German reunification; Yemeni unification; Breakup of the Soviet Union and creation of new states; Withdrawal of Soviet military troops from Afghanistan; End of Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia.
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