20 Influential Revolutions in History
A chronological list of 20 revolutions felt around the world, from the Glorious Revolution in the 17th century's Britain to the widespread Arab Spring in the 21st century.
a data set by WorldExplorer
created February 6, 2017
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Learn All About Revolutions
This game aims at helping you have a thorough understanding of the causes, goals, and outcomes of these revolutions that greatly shaped our history.
Which Revolution Happened First?
Are you familiar with the timeline of these revolutions? Let's compare them based on their years of start!
Match Revolutions with Their Pictures
In this game, you will see a set of paintings or photos reflecting the scenes of these influential revolutions in history. Now can you match each picture with its corresponding revolution?
Match Revolutions with Their Other Names
In this game, please find the match that refers to the same revolution known by different names.
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|Revolution||Other Name||Picture||Location||Year of Start||Year of End||Participants||Leader||Cause||Goal||Outcome|
|Glorious Revolution||Revolution of 1688; War of the English Succession; Bloodless Revolution||British Isles||1688||1689||English parliamentarians; Dutch forces||William III (Prince of Orange)||King James II's Catholicism and his close ties with France||Overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland)||Replacement of James II by William and Mary; Drafting of the Bill of Rights 1689; Leading to the Jacobite War in Scotland and Williamite War in Ireland|
|American Revolutionary War||U.S. War of Independence||Eastern North America||1775||1783||Thirteen American colonies; France; Spain; Netherlands||George Washington||Disputed control over taxation; Lack of colonial representatives in the British Parliament||Overthrow of the authority of Great Britain; American independence||American independence recognized by Great Britain; End of the First British Empire; Territorial changes among Great Britain, Spain, France, and Dutch Republic|
|French Revolution||France||1789||1799||French society||Georges Danton; Maximilien Robespierre; Napoleon Bonaparte||Rising social and economic inequality; New political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment; Instability of economy; Economic mismanagement; Unmanageable national debt; Political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI||Overthrow of Louis XVI; Establishment of a republic||Abolition of the French monarchy; Establishment of a secular and democratic republic that became increasingly authoritarian and militaristic; Radical social change based on liberalism and other Enlightenment principles; Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte; Armed conflicts with other European countries; Acceleration of the rise of republics and democracies globally|
|Haitian Revolution||Saint-Domingue||1791||1804||Ex-slaves; French royalists; Spain; Louverture Loyalists; Great Britain||Toussaint L'Ouverture; Jean-Jacques Dessalines||Class and racial tensions between colonists, free people of color, black slaves; Regional rivalries between the North, South, and West||Abolition of slavery in Saint-Domingue; Independence of Haiti||French colonial government expelled; Massacre of the French (1804 Haiti massacre); Independent Empire of Haiti established; Abolition of slavery in Haiti|
|Kościuszko Uprising||Commonwealth of Poland and the Prussian partition||1794||1794||Polish commanders, politicians, and other opposition groups||Tadeusz Kościuszko||Decline of the Commonwealth controlled by the magnates of Poland and Lithuania; Growing unrest since the Second Partition of Poland in 1793||Liberation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from Russian influence||Crush of the uprising; Third partition of Poland (Austria, Russia and Prussia annexed the remainder of Poland); Start of modern political thought in Poland and Central Europe|
|Spanish American Wars of Independence||Spanish America||1808||1833||United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata; Chile; Venezuela; Gran Colombia; Free Province of Guayaquil; Mexican Empire; Republic of Peru||José María Morelos; Simón Bolívar; José Gervasio Artigas; José de San Martín||Instability in the worldwide Spanish monarchy due to the collapse of the Bourbon dynasty||Overthrow of Spanish rule in Spanish America||End of Spainish rule over almost all Spanish America except for Cuba and Puerto Rico; Independence of new nations stretching from Argentina and Chile in the south to Mexico in the north|
|Revolutions of 1848||Spring of Nations; Springtime of the Peoples; Year of Revolution||Western and Central Europe||1848||1849||People of France, the German states, the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Italian states, Denmark, Wallachia, Poland, and others||Giuseppe Mazzini; Louis Blanc; Lajos Kossuth||Widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership by middle and working classes; Demands for more participation in government and democracy; Demands for freedom of press||Removal of the old feudal structures; Creation of independent national states||Little political change; Significant social and culture change, marking the beginning of mass politics and ensuring liberty and equality in the long run|
|Taiping Rebellion||Taiping Civil War||China||1850||1864||Taiping Heavenly Kingdom||Hong Xiuquan||Anti-Qing sentiments due to its ineffectiveness, corruption, and the humiliating defeat at the hands of the Western powers||Overthrow of the Qing dynasty; Complete change of the political and social system in China||Fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom; Diminished power of the central court over the provinces; Rise of irregular provincial armies; Lasting damage to the perception of Christianity in China; Persecution of Hakka people and other ethnic groups that once supported the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom; Sparking other rebellions in China|
|American Civil War||United States||1861||1865||Confederate States||Jefferson Davis||Dispute over slavery; Geographic divide between the North and the South in terms of sectionalism, protectionism, and state's rights||Secession from the U.S. by southern slave states; Establishment of the Confederate States of America||Abolition of slavery; Preservation of territorial integrity; Destruction and dissolution of the Confederate States; Beginning of the Reconstruction Era|
|Meiji Restoration||Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal||Japan||1868||1912||Japanese society||Emperor Meiji; Ōkubo Toshimichi; Itō Hirobumi||Internal problems (such as the decayed feudal system and the growing factions); Western colonial powers' advance in armament and technology; Growing idea of nationalism||Restoration of practical imperial rule; Reinvention of Japan||Emergence of Japan as a modernized nation in the early twentieth century; Japan's rapid rise to great power status in the international system|
|Young Turk Revolution||Ottoman Empire||1908||1908||Young Turks (Ottoman exiles, students, civil servants, and army officers)||Ahmed Niyazi Bey||Sultan Abdul Hamid II's rule was not in line with the developing nation; Development of a more liberal environment in Turkey around that time||Restoration of the 1876 constitution||Reinstatement of the parliament; Reinstatement of the 1876 constitution|
|Xinhai Revolution||Revolution of 1911; Chinese Revolution||China||1911||1912||Tongmenghui (Chinese Revolutionary Alliance); Gelaohui||Sun Yat-sen||Qing government's ineffectiveness in terms of modernizing China and confronting foreign aggression||Overthrow of the Qing dynasty; Establishment of the Republic of China||Victory of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance; Abdication of Emperor Puyi; Downfall of the Qing dynasty; End of Imperial China; Establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China|
|October Revolution||Bolshevik Revolution; Red October; October Uprising||Russian Republic||1917||1917||All-Russian Central Executive Committee; Red Guards; Petrograd Soviet; Bolshevik Party; Russian Soviet Republic||Vladimir Lenin||Weakness and internal dissension of the Russian Provisional Government; A nationwide crisis in Russia, affecting social, economic, and political relations||Overthrow of the Russian Provisional Government||End of Russian Provisional Government, Russian Republic and dual power; Creation of Soviet Russia; All-Russian Congress of Soviets became supreme governing body; Start of the Russian Civil War|
|Irish War of Independence||Anglo-Irish War; Tan War||Ireland||1919||1921||Irish Republic||Michael Collins; Éamon de Valera||Home Rule Crisis; Pre-War violence since the Easter Rising of 1916||Overthrow of the British rule; Establishment of an Irish Republic||Ceasefire; Military Stalemate; Signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty (End of British rule in 26 counties of Ireland); Creation of the Irish Free State|
|Greek Civil War||Greece||1946||1949||Democratic Army of Greece supported by Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Albania||Markos Vafeiadis; Nikos Zachariadis||A highly polarized struggle between left and right ideologies||Establishment of the Provisional Democratic Government||Defeat of the Communist insurgents by the government forces; Greater economic distress in Greece; Polarization and instability of Greek politics in the mid-1960s|
|Cuban Revolution||Cuba||1953||1959||26th of July Movement; Student Revolutionary Directorate||Fidel Castro; Che Guevara||Fulgencio Batista's increasing dictatorship, indifference to popular concerns, and anti-communism||Overthrow of the authoritarian government of the Cuban President Fulgencio Batista||Overthrow of Fulgencio Batista's government; Establishment of a government, led by Fidel Castro; United States embargo against Cuba; Start of an era of Cuban intervention in foreign military conflicts|
|Hungarian Revolution of 1956||Hungarian Uprising of 1956||Hungarian People's Republic||1956||1956||Hungarian revolutionaries (including soldiers, militia, and armed civilians)||Imre Nagy; Pál Maléter||Postwar occupation by the Soviet Army; Hungary's political repression and economic decline during the postwar period; Mátyás Rákosi's severely authoritarian leadership; Influence from international events such as the Cold War||Overthrow of the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies||Crush of the revolution; Arresting of thousands of Hungarians; Establishment of the Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government; Increased Soviet presence in Hungary; Cold war stalemate in Europe|
|Iranian Revolution||Islamic Revolution; 1979 Revolution||Iran||1978||1979||Revolution Council; Interim Government; Other opposition groups||Ruhollah Khomeini||Discontent with the Shah's rule; Exile of Ayatollah Khomeini; Social injustice; Western imperialism; Religious motives||Overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty||Overthrow of the Shah and monarchy; 1979 energy crisis; Establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran headed by Velayat-e-Faqih with referendum; Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran replaced Persian Constitution of 1906 with referendum; Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini became the new Supreme Leader of Iran; Iran hostage crisis; Beginning of the Iran–Iraq War|
|Revolutions of 1989||Autumn of Nations||Europe (especially Central Europe, then South-East and Eastern Europe); China; Russia; Communist countries in other parts of the world||1989||1992||Citizens of Eastern Bloc nations||Political repression; Religious persecution; Poverty and corruption; State murder||Democracy; National self-determination; Free elections; Right to recall of elected officials; Political freedoms; Human rights; Labor rights||Breakup of the Soviet Union and creation of new states; End of the Cold War; Dismantling of the planned economies and privatisation of publicly owned industry; Transfer of power to capitalist governments in Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Albania; German reunification; Violent transfer of power to a capitalist government in Romania; Formation of the Russian Federation; Beginning of the first Post-Soviet conflicts|
|Arab Spring||Democracy Spring||Arab world (such as Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Syria, Bahrain, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Morocco, Jordan, and more)||2010||2012||Protesters and demonstrators (particularly youth and unions); Rebel groups||Authoritarianism; Demographic structural factors (such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the entire population); 2000s energy crisis; Political corruption; Human rights violations; Inflation; Kleptocracy; Sectarianism; Unemployment; Self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi||Democracy; Free elections; Economic freedom; Human rights; Employment; Regime change; Religion tolerance||Overthrow of the ruler and government (Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen); Start of civil war (Syria, Yemen, Libya, and Iraq); Government changes implemented in response to protests (Kuwait, Lebanon, Bahrain, and Oman); Constitutional reforms implemented in response to protests (Morocco and Jordan)|